File Name: kashmir india and pakistan .zip
The agreement between Pakistan's president, Pervez Musharraf, and India's new prime minister, Manmohan Singh, to continue talks on all contentious issues including Kashmir has inspired optimism about reduced tensions in South Asia. If decades of conflict are to be settled, however, the two sides must both do much more to address grievances and deal with the legacies of a half century and avoid too ambitious an effort to attempt everything at once. They need to foster all forms of bilateral contact and improve the lives of Kashmiris, who have borne the worst of the conflict. Dialogue will have to be expanded beyond high governmental levels if real constituencies for peace are to be nurtured.
United Nations-mandated ceasefire. The Indo-Pakistani War of — , sometimes known as the First Kashmir War , was an armed conflict that was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir from to It was the first of four Indo-Pakistani wars that was fought between the two newly-independent nations. Pakistan precipitated the war a few weeks after its independence by launching tribal lashkar militias from Waziristan ,  in an effort to capture Kashmir , the future of which hung in the balance. The inconclusive result of the war still affects the geopolitics of both countries. Hari Singh , the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, was facing an uprising by his Muslim subjects in Poonch , and lost control of the western districts of his kingdom. On 22 October , Pakistan's Pashtun militias crossed the border of the state.
The relations between the two countries have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in which started the Kashmir conflict , and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations. Consequently, their relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion. Northern India and Pakistan somewhat overlap in certain demographics and shared lingua francas mainly Punjabi , Sindhi , and Hindustani. After the dissolution of the British Raj in , two new sovereign nations were formed—the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The subsequent partition of the former British India displaced up to
The region of Kashmir is one of the most volatile areas in the world. The nations of India and Pakistan have fiercely contested each other over Kashmir, fighting three major wars and two minor wars. It has gained immense international attention given the fact that both India and Pakistan are nuclear powers and this conflict represents a threat to global security. To understand this conflict, it is essential to look back into the history of the area. In August of , India and Pakistan were on the cusp of independence from the British. The British India Empire was made up of multiple princely states states that were allegiant to the British but headed by a monarch along with states directly headed by the British.
The agreement between Pakistan's president, Pervez Musharraf, and India's new prime minister, Manmohan Singh, to continue talks on all contentious issues including Kashmir has inspired optimism about reduced tensions in South Asia. If decades of conflict are to be settled, however, the two sides must both do much more to address grievances and deal with the legacies of a half century and avoid too ambitious an effort to attempt everything at once. They need to foster all forms of bilateral contact and improve the lives of Kashmiris, who have borne the worst of the conflict. Dialogue will have to be expanded beyond high governmental levels if real constituencies for peace are to be nurtured. This report builds on previous work published by ICG on Kashmir and India-Pakistan relations and was written after extensive consultations with experts representing various viewpoints. It does not lay out a template for peace or what a comprehensive solution would look like because the circumstances for a diplomatic endgame are not yet ripe. Any such proposal at this stage would surely be rejected by both sides.
With continued violence in Kashmir and a heightened threat of terrorist activity by Pakistan-based militant groups, tensions and concerns over a serious military confrontation between nuclear-armed neighbors India and Pakistan remain high. In August , following a deployment of tens of thousands of additional troops and paramilitary forces to the region, the Indian government moved to revoke Article of the Indian constitution, removing the special status of Jammu and Kashmir. India-administered Kashmir remains under lockdown , with internet and phone services intermittently cutoff and thousands of people detained. Pakistan retaliated a day later with air strikes in Indian-administered Kashmir. Territorial disputes over the Kashmir region sparked two of the three major Indo-Pakistani wars in and , and a limited war in Although both countries have maintained a fragile cease-fire since , they regularly exchange fire across the contested border, known as the Line of Control.
Since , India and Pakistan have been locked in conflict over Kashmir, a majority-Muslim region in the northernmost part of India. The mountainous, 86,square-mile territory was once a princely state. Now, it is claimed by both India and Pakistan. From the 17th to the 20th century, Britain ruled most of the Indian subcontinent, first indirectly through the British East India Company, then from directly through the British crown.
Сьюзан… Сьюзан… И в этот момент она все поняла. Дрожащей рукой она дотянулась до панели и набрала шифр. S…U…Z…A…N И в то же мгновение дверца лифта открылась. ГЛАВА 108 Лифт Стратмора начал стремительно спускаться. В кабине Сьюзан жадно вдохнула свежий прохладный воздух и, почувствовав головокружение, прижалась к стенке лифта.
Через минуту его усилия увенчались успехом, а телефон все звонил и звонил. Христа ради, Мидж. Ну хватит .
Ее белая блузка промокла насквозь и прилипла к телу. Было темно. Сьюзан остановилась, собираясь с духом. Звук выстрела продолжал звучать у нее в голове. Горячий пар пробивался через люк подобно вулканическим газам, предшествующим извержению.
Коммандер. Стратмор даже не пошевелился. - Коммандер.
Могу я поинтересоваться, кто со мной говорит. - А-а… Зигмунд Шмидт, - с трудом нашелся Беккер. - Кто вам дал наш номер.
Что-то в этом абсурдном имени тревожно сверлило его мозг. Капля Росы. Он слышал приятный голос сеньора Ролдана из агентства сопровождения Белена. У нас только две рыжеволосые… Две рыжеволосые, Иммакулада и Росио… Росио… Росио… Беккер остановился как вкопанный. А еще считаюсь лингвистом.
Неудивительно, что Стратмор просиживает штаны на работе. Если он сумеет реализовать свой замысел, это стократно компенсирует провал Попрыгунчика. Фонтейн пришел к выводу, что Стратмор в полном порядке, что он трудится на сто десять процентов, все так же хитер, умен и в высшей степени лоялен, впрочем - как. Лучшее, что мог сделать директор, - не мешать ему работать и наблюдать за тем, как коммандер творит свое чудо.
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