File Name: myths about hiv and aids .zip
The virus weakens a person's ability to fight infections and cancer by infecting and killing CD4 cells also called T cells.
There are many myths about HIV.
Below is a list and explanations of some common misconceptions and their rebuttals. HIV is an acronym for human immunodeficiency virus , which is the virus that causes AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV cannot be cured, but it can be treated, and its transmission can be halted. Medical treatment can reduce HIV infection in many cases to a survivable chronic condition.
We describe the findings from a survey of high-school students aged between 15 and 19 years in the city of Seremban, Negeri Sembilan state, Malaysia. The total marks for each student were converted to percentage and used for analysis.
The average total score percentage was The highest scores were in the area of knowledge of mode of HIV transmission, while the lowest scores were in the area of knowledge of HIV testing. The level of HIV knowledge was correlated with age of the students but not with gender and ethnicity. Our paper revealed frequent misconceptions and a general low-to-moderate level of knowledge amongst the high school students surveyed. The first case of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection in Malaysia was reported in An estimated , people are currently living with HIV [ 1 ].
HIV transmission in Malaysia is mainly through injecting drug use and heterosexual transmission. HIV prevalence is highest in the 20—29 and the 30—39 years old age groups, affecting mainly males and Malay ethnicity.
This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from May to June Six hundred students between the age of 15 and 19 years old from four national secondary schools in the city of Seremban city were invited to participate in this survey out of which students eventually completed the questionnaire giving a response rate of The latter is a self-administered instrument which was developed by Carey et al.
The questionnaire was validated and was considered appropriate for people with at least 4th to 7th grade education between 9—12 years old and be completed within 7 minutes [ 4 , 5 ]. Each student was given 15 minutes without interruption to complete the questionnaire at their institution.
Our questionnaire was set in the English language and was divided into 4 parts. In addition, demographic data such as age, gender, year of education, and ethnicity were also collected. Prior to the survey, the students were informed about the general objectives of the study and that the questionnaire was anonymous in order to ensure confidentiality of the information provided.
Informed consent was obtained verbally. The total marks for each completed questionnaire were then converted into percentage scores. The total score and sectional scores were then used for analysis. The ANOVA test was selected to compare the total scores between age, gender, and race and to determine if there was any association between the demographic variables. Statistical significance was set at. The demographic characteristics of the students are shown in Table 1. Students from the Chinese ethnic group were the largest group followed by Indians and Malays.
Students aged 17 years were the largest group , while those aged 19 years were the smallest. The scores for each question in the questionnaire are detailed in Table 2. The mean percentage for part 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the questionnaire was The mean total score percentage was The mean percentage scores with reference to age and ethnicity are detailed in Table 3.
Using age 15 years as the reference age, there were statistically significant associations between the mean percentage scores and age 17, 18, and 19 years , , and , resp. There was no association between gender and ethnic groups with mean percentage scores. However, in these studies, the questionnaires used were different from the one used in this study although the subject matters were similar. The results in our study may have been affected by the relatively smaller number of Malay students Table 3 compared to other ethnic groups.
However, there was a difference between Malay and Indian students. Although there was no difference between students aged 15 and 16 , statistically significant differences were found with students aged 17 and above compared to students aged 15 years.
This may be because older students were more exposed to sexual education and were more matured in their thinking. Sex education is not a formal subject in the Malaysian education system, but it is incorporated into the current existing subjects and curriculum like moral studies, Islamic studies, and science.
In our study, the students scored the highest in Part 2 of the questionnaire Knowledge of the different modes of HIV transmissions is important as it is relevant to the prevention of HIV infection. Although the majority of the students in our study had the correct knowledge regarding the most common modes of transmission of HIV, misconceptions still existed among some of the students where many believed transmission was possible via the sharing of a toothbrush These misconceptions were not exclusive to the students in our study but were also found among Korean adolescents [ 10 ].
Our study also showed that The importance of stressing on HIV prevention in the younger age groups can directly decrease the prevalence of HIV nationwide. In our study, the students scored the lowest The relative ignorance of the students on this issue may be because the main focus of many HIV awareness campaigns and advertisements in Malaysia was on prevention of transmission of HIV rather than on the availability and the types of HIV testing.
The role of anonymous HIV testing has been evaluated and has been recommended as part of HIV care because it was linked to early detection of the infection and access to medical care [ 12 ]. The relative lack of knowledge of these students in this area is of concern and needs to be addressed in future awareness programs. There were several limitations in our study which may have influenced the outcome of the study. The study population was selected from four urban schools in the city of Seremban where the composition of the students was different from student compositions in, for example, rural schools, full-board schools, and single ethnic group schools.
The outcome of this study therefore may not reflect the true picture of all students between the age of 15 and 19 years in Malaysia. The third limitation of this study was that English language was used in the questionnaire. Many students in Malaysia are not proficient in written or spoken English and may have had difficulty in understanding and answering the questionnaire although we have attempted to minimize this by selecting only students from the top 3 classes in each age group as well as offering assistance in explaining the questionnaire at the time when the students were answering them.
This selective process, however, may have influenced the outcome of this study wherein the knowledge of students with poorer command of English was not assessed. This may be remedied by using validated questionnaires in the mother tongue of the students in future studies. These students scored highest in questions pertaining to HIV transmission and lowest in questions pertaining to HIV testing. Future awareness programs targeting these students should include emphasis on availability of HIV testing facilities.
The authors of this paper declare no conflict of interests in submitting this paper for publication. The authors further declare this study received no funding from any organizations or persons. Kwee Choy made literature search and writing of the paper, Professor Dr. Chandra Jutti made study design, piloting, and validation of modified questionnaire, and Dr. Lai, Dr. Lee, Dr. Sabapathy, and Dr. Jue Jing made study design, data collating and data entry, statistical analysis, and literature search.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Academic Editor: Y. Received 05 Jul Accepted 25 Jul Published 04 Sep Abstract We describe the findings from a survey of high-school students aged between 15 and 19 years in the city of Seremban, Negeri Sembilan state, Malaysia. Introduction The first case of human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection in Malaysia was reported in Materials and Methods 2.
Study Setting This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from May to June Ethical Considerations Prior to the survey, the students were informed about the general objectives of the study and that the questionnaire was anonymous in order to ensure confidentiality of the information provided. Results 3. Demographic Characteristics The demographic characteristics of the students are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the student population. Table 2. Table 3. Mean percentage scores in relation to age and ethnicity. References Ungass Country Progress Report.
Reporting period: January —December , Wong, C. Chin, W. Low, and N. View at: Google Scholar M. Carey, D. Morrison-Beedy, and B. Carey and K. Al-Rabeei, A. Dallak, and F. View at: Google Scholar A. View at: Google Scholar X. Li, C. Lin, Z. Gao et al. Country Report: Malaysia,
However misinformation and a lack of knowledge around HIV continues to perpetuate stigma. One way to help educate and shift these attitudes is to shine a light on some of the myths around HIV today. HIV is no longer a death sentence, and with modern treatment HIV can be considered a manageable chronic illness. Advances in HIV treatment has made this possible. Read further about HIV treatment on our site. If the person you are kissing has sore or bleeding gums then there is an elevated risk, but overall transmission through kissing is extremely rare. Oral sex is generally considered to be very low risk for HIV transmission.
Metrics details. A qualitative study was conducted in six urban and rural local government areas of Ebonyi state. Data were collected through twelve focus group discussions FGD with unmarried adolescents aged 13—18 who were either attending school or out-of-school. The FGDs were conducted using a pre-tested topic guide. Data were coded manually and analyzed using a thematic framework approach. Some adolescents had inaccurate notions that a HIV infected person could be identified through changes in physical features such as abdominal swelling and longer fingernails. A few of them also reported that HIV could be treated with antibiotics.
All A-Z health topics. View all pages in this section. Myths can be harmful. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 1. Also, people with HIV who start treatment early in their infection, stay on treatment, and have an undetectable viral load can stay healthy and prevent the disease from progressing to AIDS. Newer HIV tests identify the virus itself and a marker on the virus called p24 antigen.
According to the latest statistics from the Centers for Disease, Control, and Prevention, around While there have been many advancements in the management of the HIV virus throughout the years, unfortunately, a lot of misinformation still exists about what it means to live with HIV. These experts treat people, educate medical students, and provide support to patients coping with the disease. Here are the top nine myths and misconceptions that they, and people living with the HIV virus or the AIDS syndrome, continue to combat:. Amesh A.
We describe the findings from a survey of high-school students aged between 15 and 19 years in the city of Seremban, Negeri Sembilan state, Malaysia. The total marks for each student were converted to percentage and used for analysis. The average total score percentage was
PLoS Med 3 10 : e This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
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Размышляя об этом, Сьюзан вдруг вспомнила фразу, сказанную Стратмором: Я попытался запустить Следопыта самостоятельно, но информация, которую он выдал, оказалась бессмысленной. Сьюзан задумалась над этими словами. Информация, которую он выдал… Она резко подняла голову. Возможно ли. Информация, которую он выдал.
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Беккер пожал плечами и вгляделся в надпись. - Да, их тут немало. - Я что-то не понимаю, - вмешался Фонтейн.
- Добрый вечер, мистер Хейл. - Он нахмурился, глаза его сузились. - Сегодня суббота. Чем мы обязаны.
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Так и есть, примерно через каждые двадцать строк появляется произвольный набор четырех знаков.
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Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs. Lancet ;. – 2 Strathdee SA, Hallett TB, Bobrova N, et al. HIV.Moncafecja 22.12.2020 at 18:47
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