File Name: monitoring and evaluation methods .zip
Subscribe to our newsletter. Great news is, the variations of monitoring and evaluation are not mutually exclusive, which means that they can be used in different combinations to leverage the full potential of your project.
Metrics details. Sharing this information with key stakeholders prompted them to take appropriate actions. For example, the sub-county leadership constructed placenta disposal pits, the district health officer provided fuel for ambulances, and health workers received refresher training and mentorship on how to care for newborns. Diverse sources of information and perspectives can help researchers and decision-makers understand and adapt evidence to contexts for more effective interventions. Supporting districts to have crosscutting, routine information generating and sharing platforms that bring together stakeholders from different sectors is therefore crucial for the successful implementation of complex development interventions.
Metrics details. Sharing this information with key stakeholders prompted them to take appropriate actions. For example, the sub-county leadership constructed placenta disposal pits, the district health officer provided fuel for ambulances, and health workers received refresher training and mentorship on how to care for newborns. Diverse sources of information and perspectives can help researchers and decision-makers understand and adapt evidence to contexts for more effective interventions.
Supporting districts to have crosscutting, routine information generating and sharing platforms that bring together stakeholders from different sectors is therefore crucial for the successful implementation of complex development interventions.
The ever increasing demand for scarce resources has drawn more attention to the need to not only evaluate health programmes, but to also ensure that the results of these evaluations influence the implementation of programmes.
The availability of accurate, timely and consistent data at the national and sub-national levels is assumed to be crucial for development programmes to effectively manage health systems, allocate resources according to need, and ensure accountability for delivering on health commitments [ 1 , 2 , 3 ].
Timely evidence from research during the course of implementation can inform and influence policy development, the identification of good practices and the development of sustainable health systems [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. In contexts where maternal and newborn mortality is high, both demand and supply-side challenges exist side-by-side [ 2 ].
For instance, providing appropriate maternity care is a complex process that involves a wide range of preventive, curative and emergency services as well as several different levels of care — from the community to the facility and beyond [ 2 , 7 ].
At the household level, there is a need to recognise maternal and newborn danger signs by family members so that appropriate services can be sought [ 8 , 9 ]. At community level, accessibility to information on maternal and newborn service, proximity to the health facility and access to transport contribute to the increased utilisation of services from skilled personnel.
At the facility level, equipment, supplies and medicines must be available to enable the health provider to make the correct diagnosis, provide appropriate treatment and make timely decisions so as to save the life of the mother and her newborn [ 7 , 8 ].
Weaver and Cousins [ 11 ] categorise participatory evaluation into practical participatory evaluation, which is more utilisation oriented and mainly focused on local problem solving, and transformative participatory evaluation, which is more emancipatory in nature with a strong empowerment component aimed at addressing existing inequities. It also enhances their use of the evaluation findings through their participation in the implementation learning and assessment process [ 15 ].
In addition, the involvement of different stakeholders helps to uncover diverse views, which guides debate and better understanding of the issues that affect the communities [ 11 , 15 ]. As a result, this can inform the redesigning and improvement of programmes that do not reach their intended beneficiaries [ 16 , 17 ].
Several authors have proposed theories that explain the mechanisms that underpin the activities and consequences of practical participatory evaluations. Smits and Champagne [ 18 ] emphasise the importance of four key concepts, namely interactive data generation, co-construction of knowledge, local context of action and instrumental use.
This interactive process eventually influences evaluation knowledge production and evaluation utilisation. They included 1 community mobilisation and empowerment through the community health worker home visits, community dialogue meetings, radio talk shows and messages; 2 improvement of financial and geographical access to care by promoting savings for delivery care and organising local transport; and 3 health systems strengthening through training of health workers, mentorship, supportive supervision and capacity-building of leaders in management.
These interventions were provided only in the intervention area except for the radio talk shows and messages, which were aired on radios with listenership in the control areas as well and support supervision, which was routinely provided by the district health team in both the control and intervention area. The research team comprised of members from the district level district health officers, and district reproductive health focal persons and researchers from the Makerere University School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health.
The Makerere University team was also responsible for building the capacity of the local implementers by providing technical support to the district and sub-county teams, who were the lead implementers. The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health team provided general oversight for implementation of the project together with the Makerere University team.
The sub-county and district level stakeholders comprised of the health workers, various community leaders and decision-makers religious leaders, political leaders and technocrats. The community level stakeholders included men and women of reproductive age, VHT members, savings group leaders and local transporters. The men and women of the community were important stakeholders, since they made decisions about seeking appropriate care for mothers and newborns and preparing for birth by ensuring that they had the financial resources required in addition to planning transport and purchasing other requirements needed for the mother and newborn.
The VHT members were responsible for doing home visits and conducting community dialogues, which were community meetings established to discuss MNH issues. Saving group leaders and transporters provided relevant services that contributed to increasing access to cash and transport for MNH. The local transporters were chosen by the savings group and they were responsible for providing safe transport services to health facilities during antenatal care ANC and at the time of delivery.
Prior to the implementation of the project, refresher trainings and orientation meetings were provided for all the local implementers in the project. This was done to enhance their capacity to play their expected roles, as explained above. Continuous technical support was also provided throughout the implementation of the project by the Makerere University team and respective local supervisors. Further details about the trainings performed are available in Ekirapa-Kiracho et al.
During study implementation, the research findings were analysed, synthesised and shared on a quarterly basis with the different stakeholders in the intervention area. Whereas numerous papers have been written about outcomes of evaluation studies, much less attention has been paid to the evaluation processes themselves [ 21 ].
The estimated population of the three districts was 1,, Kamuli ,, Kibuku , and Pallisa , [ 22 ]. The three districts have health facilities, 33 in Pallisa, 17 in Kibuku and 54 in Kamuli [ 22 ]. The MANIFEST baseline study estimated the neonatal mortality rate to be 34 per live births [ 25 ], compared to the 27 per live births national estimates [ 23 , 24 ].
The data for this paper is drawn from retrospective reflection of the various data collection sources that included document reviews, project implementation review meetings, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, health facility support supervisions and household surveys.
Details of how the implementation study data was collected are available in a study design paper [ 20 ]. Our motivation for using the participatory approaches was mainly pragmatic and political [ 11 ]. The pragmatic approach was aimed at promoting problem solving. We therefore encouraged the involvement and participation of local stakeholders in assessing progress with implementation, identifying key lessons and challenges, and subsequently suggesting suitable solutions to the challenges identified.
In relation to the political aspects, our aim was to make sure that we gather the support of the community leaders politicians , the implementing team health workers, community development officers, implementing partners and community health workers and the community, including marginalised populations such as adolescents and disabled persons.
The project provided avenues for these stakeholders to be able to critically understand the health challenges at both health facility, community and individual level through providing evidence and allowing interaction, which in turn motivated them to take an active role in providing solutions to the problems identified. We collected data during the design stage at the beginning, during implementation and at the end of the intervention, and consistently involved stakeholders at national, district, sub-county and community village level during data collection and dissemination.
This approach collected data through formal meetings. These planning meetings were facilitated by the Makerere University School of Public Health research team. During the planning meeting, the stakeholders were asked to discuss how to address the problems identified using available resources and a given time frame.
The involvement of the stakeholders at the planning stage provided a better understanding of the maternal and newborn problems and guided the selection of interventions that were implemented.
During the implementation phase, the stakeholders at the community and sub-county levels in the intervention areas were engaged in addition to the district level stakeholders. They were engaged through quarterly group meetings, which took place at sub-county and district level, quarterly support supervision visits to the health facilities, and quarterly group meetings with the VHTs and the communities community dialogues.
At district level, the meetings were chaired by the district health officer, who was responsible for mobilising all district stakeholders, including the implementing partners and donors such as UNICEF and USAID. At sub-county level, the meetings were chaired by the sub-county chief, who was also responsible for mobilising the sub-county implementation committee for the meeting. Based on the presentations and discussions, appropriate actions were then taken by district planning leaders, health workers, health managers and the research team.
The district biostatistician and the district health team were responsible for the analysis of routine data collected through the district health management information system, while the Makerere University research team was responsible for the analysis of data collected through additional surveys. This information was used to develop a Theory of Change.
The Theory of Change enabled the research team members to clarify not only the ultimate outcomes and impacts they hoped to achieve, but also the avenues through which they expected to achieve them. This helped the research team and the local stakeholders build consensus on the implementation pathways. More details about the Theory of Change and how it was used are available in Paina et al.
Quantitative information was collected through household surveys, health facility support supervision visits, health information utilisation data and reports from the community health workers. The main outcomes for LQAS household surveys were changes in facility deliveries, ANC attendance, birth preparedness practices, and knowledge of birth preparedness, pregnancy, labour and newborn danger signs.
Every quarter, we randomly selected five villages as supervision areas in each district supervision units , from which we randomly sampled 19 eligible households for assessment.
A team of five district-based persons government employees , who included the biostatistician and health management information system focal person, collected the data. A team of trained research assistants with support from a qualitative research specialist from Makerere University collected qualitative data through focus group discussions, key informant interviews and quarterly review meetings at district and sub-county level.
We conducted focus group discussions with men and women in rich and poor communities and in locations that were considered hard to reach and easily accessible. These areas were selected by members from the district health office [ 20 ]. The key informant interviews were conducted with community leaders, district health management team members and health providers [ 20 ]. We used a modified version of the most significant change approach to help us track the most significant changes experienced by the health providers and the community during the implementation phase [ 27 ] Fig.
We did this by collecting stories of change during focus group discussions with the community, key informant interviews with health providers and local leaders, and meetings quarterly meetings, health workers symposia and research team meetings. The PIPA workshop was conducted in the first and second year of implementation. Details about how it was conducted are available in Ekirapa-Kiracho et al. We used PIPA to analyse the type, role and strength of each stakeholder, as well as how they were connected with one another in the context of maternal and newborn services.
This helped the project team to understand the actors in MNH, the resources that they possessed, as well as the power and influence that they had in promoting achievement of the project objectives.
During the design phase of the programme we held focus group discussions and stakeholder meetings with local members of the communities. The purpose of these discussions were to identify local problems and feasible solutions as well as the existing local resources, including existing infrastructure and governance structures, human and financial resources.
Through the discussions we were able to identify the problems that affect MNH services in three main areas, including birth preparedness, transport and quality of MNH care services in the health facilities.
The problems related to birth preparedness included lack of awareness of its importance, negative cultural practices, men neglecting their roles, lack of knowledge about family planning, poor saving culture and poverty. The transport problems included absence of ambulances, long distances to health units, lack of appropriate transport vehicles and high transport fares.
This information was used to identify the interventions that were implemented. For instance, to address the challenge of low awareness about the importance of birth preparedness, home visits by community health workers were suggested and later included as one of the key interventions. To address poor managerial and technical skills, refresher training for health workers was proposed and provided as one of the interventions for health system strengthening.
The local resources identified included existing infrastructure and governance structures such as the sub-county committee, community development office, local transport associations, VHTs and savings groups. The sub-county committee was given the responsibility of supervising the quarterly community dialogues that were held at every village. The community development office was able to provide technical support to the saving groups when we realised that most of them had managerial problems and lacked the basic documentation that was required for their efficient functionality.
During the implementation phase, we shared information about uptake of the intervention elements and progress with implementation of the intervention with the community level stakeholders. Data from the household surveys provided information about the uptake of various aspects of the intervention. For example, in some of the hard-to-reach areas, newborn deaths were high and most of the women were delivering at home with assistance from traditional birth attendants. Data collected from community health workers also helped the research team and district health office capture the number of newborn deaths and maternal deaths more completely and accurately.
Previously, the district only had data from the facility, which reflected a much smaller number of maternal and newborn deaths. The main factors included delays in deciding to seek care and inadequate care at the health facilities, with delays in deciding to refer mothers at the health facilities. Some of the problems that had been identified during the problem identification phase were still present even at the design phase of the study.
Their persistence during the intervention showed that more attention needed to be given to addressing them. These issues were then brought to the attention of local leaders, health providers, including VHTs, and district planners in the community. For example, through the community dialogues, we emphasised the importance of delivering in health facilities and preparing for birth by saving money so that transport could be availed in case a mother was referred to a more specialised facility.
As a result, women started saving with the saving groups and some groups bought their own boda bodas, which they started using to transport the members of the groups at subsidised costs and sometimes for free. Initially, the community used to save mainly to meet their needs during festive seasons such as Christmas or for burial.
Use Only Keyword s. Posted Further Reading 1. The logical framework LogFrame helps to clarify objectives of any project, program, or policy. It leads to the identification of performance indicators at each stage in this chain, as well as risks which might impede the attainment of the objectives. The LogFrame is also a vehicle for engaging partners in clarifying objectives and designing activities.
The best monitoring and evaluation tool provides an integrated approach that is easy to adopt and takes you to continuous learning and improvement goals. Selecting monitoring and evaluation tools can be daunting. Some provide a point-to-point feature and have to use multiple tools to meet donor reporting requirements. Whereas some provide a suite of services which can cost a fortune combined with high risk of implementation failure and a longer customization time. This even when implemented may not meet requirements due to poor user experience. Evidence and data are keys to long term social impact. Many still focus on activity tracking and outcome harvesting , which might be sufficient for some donors who want impact justification reporting , but it doesn't advance you towards evidence based approach.
Its goal is to improve current and future management of outputs, outcomes and impact. Monitoring is a continuous assessment of programmes based on early detailed information on the progress or delay of the ongoing assessed activities. The credibility and objectivity of monitoring and evaluation reports depend very much on the independence of the evaluators. Their expertise and independence is of major importance for the process to be successful. The developed countries are using this process to assess their own development and cooperation agencies.
Guidelines for deciding on evaluation methods. Monitoring and Evaluation Implementation Framework for Continuing Professional. Development (CPD). 1.
Follow CompassforSbc. Click here to access this Guide in Arabic. It is a living document that should be referred to and updated on a regular basis.
TIPS 1: Conducting a Participatory Evaluation- Participatory evaluation provides for active involvement in the evaluation process of those with a stake in the program: providers, partners, customers beneficiaries , and any other interested parties. Participation typically takes place throughout all phases of the evaluation: planning and design; gathering and analyzing the data; identifying the evaluation findings, conclusions, and recommendations; disseminating results; and preparing an action plan to improve program performance. For complete TIP, click here pdf, kb. TIPS 2: Conducting Key Informant Interview- They are qualitative, in-depth interviews of 15 to 35 people selected or their first-hand knowledge about a topic of interest. The interviews are loosely structured, relying on a list of issues to be discussed.
Банк данных АНБ - это основа основ тысяч правительственных операций. Отключить все это без подготовки - значит парализовать разведдеятельность во всем мире. - Я отдаю себе отчет в последствиях, сэр, - сказал Джабба, - но у нас нет выбора.
El queria que lo guardara. Он хотел его оставить, но я сказала. Во мне течет цыганская кровь, мы, цыганки, не только рыжеволосые, но еще и очень суеверные. Кольцо, которое отдает умирающий, - дурная примета. - Вы знаете эту девушку? - Беккер приступил к допросу.
Но вместо того чтобы нарушить правила, женщина выругала самоуверенного североамериканца и отсоединилась. Расстроенный, Беккер повесил трубку. Провал. Мысль о том, что придется отстоять в очереди несколько часов, была невыносима. Время идет, старик канадец может куда-нибудь исчезнуть. Вполне вероятно, он решит поскорее вернуться в Канаду. Или надумает продать кольцо.
Похоже, он не передал ничего хотя бы отдаленно похожего на набор букв и цифр - только список тех, кого ликвидировал. - Черт возьми! - не сдержался Фонтейн, теряя самообладание. - Он должен там. Ищите. Джабба окончательно убедился: директор рискнул и проиграл.
The growth of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) units in government, accounting practice and the information is analysed using accepted methods and models.
Dov'ela plata. Где деньги. Беккер достал из кармана пять ассигнаций по десять тысяч песет и протянул мотоциклисту. Итальянец посмотрел на деньги, потом на свою спутницу. Девушка схватила деньги и сунула их в вырез блузки. - Grazie! - просиял итальянец.
Я плачу вам за то, чтобы вы следили за отчетностью и обслуживали сотрудников, а не шпионили за моим заместителем. Если бы не он, мы бы до сих пор взламывали шифры с помощью карандаша и бумаги. А теперь уходите! - Он повернулся к Бринкерхоффу, с побледневшим лицом стоявшему возле двери. - Вы оба. - При всем моем уважении к вам, сэр, - сказала Мидж, - я бы порекомендовала послать в шифровалку бригаду службы безопасности - просто чтобы убедиться… - Ничего подобного мы делать не будем. На этом Мидж капитулировала: - Хорошо. Доброй ночи.
Его комментарий отличался бесстрастностью опытного полевого агента: - Эта съемка сделана из мини-автобуса, припаркованного в пятидесяти метрах от места убийства. Танкадо приближается справа, Халохот - между деревьев слева. - У нас почти не осталось времени, - сказал Фонтейн.
Придется проверить тысячи строк программы, чтобы обнаружить крохотную ошибку, - это все равно что найти единственную опечатку в толстенной энциклопедии. Сьюзан понимала, что ей ничего не остается, как запустить Следопыта повторно. На поиски вируса нужно время, которого нет ни у нее, ни у коммандера.
Время идет, старик канадец может куда-нибудь исчезнуть. Вполне вероятно, он решит поскорее вернуться в Канаду. Или надумает продать кольцо. Беккер не мог ждать. Он решительно поднял трубку, снова набрал номер и прислонился к стене.
and energy conduct their own Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E). It aims to resources. As a pdf format, you can print this out, or type into it. Section 3 gives an overview of information collection methods, whilst section 4 provides links to.Dwight B. 16.12.2020 at 01:49
IIED's work in monitoring, evaluation and learning aims to provide the right type of information at the right time to the right people.