File Name: android controlled pick and place robotic arm vehicle project .zip
A robotic arm is a type of mechanical arm , usually programmable , with similar functions to a human arm ; the arm may be the sum total of the mechanism or may be part of a more complex robot. The links of such a manipulator are connected by joints allowing either rotational motion such as in an articulated robot or translational linear displacement.
Rajpar, Ahmad. This paper focuses on the design and development of a reconfigurable three-degree-of-freedom articulated robot for conducting pick-and-place tasks. To implement the system, an Android platform for the manual control of an articulated robot using wireless Bluetooth technology was developed. This application allows the user to manually reconfigure the robot following the requirements of the integrated system via a user-friendly display. The articulated robot comprises four motors, three of which are used for positioning and orientation and finally used to carry out the pick-and-place task.
An Arduino Un R3 board is used to control the movement of the links via a pulse width modulation method. The exponential growth in mobile technology and the development of remote-control device applications in recent years has motivated researchers to go beyond closed-loop fixed industrial robotic applications to explore the tremendous potential for using open-architecture Android-based user-friendly displays to reconfigure robots to carry out designated tasks.
Robots are multifunctional devices that are primarily designed to work in a manner that emulates human activities such as picking and placing, loading and unloading, and carrying out several surveillance, healthcare, industrial, and aerospace tasks.
In the robotic field, the primary focus has been on reprogrammable robots, which require the application of a high level of programming skill. In this paper, we focus on a manually adjusted reconfigurable robot that can be controlled via a user-friendly interface in which slider movement is used to adjust each joint individually.
Android operating systems can be used to carry out manual robot control using wireless Bluetooth technology to monitor the current distance between the robot and obstacles via an ultrasonic sensor. Increases in the computational power and sensing abilities of smartphones and the recent availability of interface boards have made smartphone-controlled robots popular among a wide range of enthusiasts [ 1 , 2 ].
A smart trolley based on Android smartphone sensors that can move and demonstrate location to users has also been developed [ 3 , 4 ], and a robot arm dedicated to specific tasks based on different control approaches has been designed and developed [ 5 ]. In the field of defense, an Android-controlled prototype tank-based military robot with HC Bluetooth module-enabled object detection and tracking capability has been developed and tested in simulated enemy target engagements [ 6 ]. A number of mobile-controllable robotic arm systems have also been developed.
The LabVIEW controlled robotic arm is a robotic gripper that has the form of a human hand and can be ordered to adjust its pose to a set of desired coordinates. If coupled with a wrist and arm [ 5 ], it can be used to achieve inverse kinematics sufficient for calculating the rotational level of dexterity required for grasping and manipulation [ 7 ]. Mobile device-controlled robotic vehicles with additional four-degree-of-freedom DOF robotic arms have been used as assistive robots in search and rescue missions.
These automatic systems employ a graphical user interface GUI to ease utilization [ 8 ]. A number of robotic arm structures with synthesized 3-DOF capability based on the application of accurate algorithms and equations have been compared with respect to a variety of criteria [ 9 ].
With the growing popularity of Wi-Fi networks, network-based teleoperated mobile robots have become an active focus of research. To overcome the general shortcomings of robots in terms of high cost and power consumption, lack of portability, and difficulty in obtaining an outdoor power supply, remotely controlled teleoperated mobile robots based on Wi-Fi networks have been designed [ 10 ]. Of the two basic types of networks—dedicated and nondedicated—used for communication in networked control systems, nondedicated networks are preferable for robotic control applications owing to their low costs and ready availabilities [ 11 , 12 ].
The developed system comprises the following subsystems. As the base of the robot, a cast-iron 1. Using the program, biaxial bending calculations were carried out to obtain the column capacity.
Design tests were performed to ensure that the joints and links were all in good absolute and relative positions. To ensure safety during use, some modifications were made based on design tests. To enable environment interaction, suitable robot arms and grippers were designed. In consideration of mechanical properties, environmental conditions, and health, safety, noise, and cost factors, Teflon materials were used to fabricate the robot arm and disc mechanism.
Teflon, or polytetrafluorethylene PTFE , is a plastic synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that can be used in various applications. PTFE has important properties that include a low friction coefficient and material inertness that keep it from reacting with different substances and provide a high resistance to liquids and a high melting point.
In terms of robotic arm applications, it has desirable toughness, density, and durability [ 13 , 14 ]. Electromechanical system characterized by intermediate modeled dynamics and uncertain parameters make the actuators unable to overcome the initial electromechanical inertia [ 15 , 16 ].
A proposed dynamic system supports sufficient power supply, standardized actuators are self-sustained startup, and control signal makes it possible to bring all actuators in home position before start of a new task. Further design parameters of the robot are listed in Table 1. The computational power and efficiency of handheld devices such as mobile phones and tablets are increasing exponentially. These devices are currently equipped with dual-core technology processors with high video graphic signal transfer rates and support multiple connectivity options such as USB, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi with 4 and 5G network support.
In designing an Android-controlled robot, the most challenging task is to ensure that the Android device can interoperate with individual parts of the robot such as the actuators, specialized sensors, and security systems. In previous studies, this issue has been addressed using a layered approach [ 17 , 18 ].
In this project, a Bluetooth module was used to enable communication between the controller and Android. The telecommunication system components are shown in Figure 1.
Bluetooth is a wireless communications protocol running at 2. The Arduino Uno contains all of the functionalities needed to support a microcontroller and can be simply connected to a computer through a USB cable and powered by an AC-to-DC adapter or battery. Arduino can interact with a variety of outputs, including LEDs, motors, and displays. Owing to its flexibility and low cost, Arduino is a very popular option for creating interactive hardware projects.
The proposed robot employs servo motors, a type of DC motor with a closed feedback system in which the position of the motor can be communicated back to its control circuit. Unlike a stepper motor, a servo motor operates in a closed loop in which the motor shaft is connected to a series of controls that continue to move the shaft until it arrives at the desired position.
As noted above, Arduino can be powered in several ways. As another very important requirement in working with the Arduino, a seamless breadboard is used. Using this device, it is possible to create a prototype of an Arduino project without having to permanently solder circuits.
The breadboard allowed us to create temporary prototypes and carry out experiments with different circuit designs. The holes nodes of the plastic housing of the control system are metal clips interconnected by strips of conductive material. A number of design standards were followed in the construction of various mechanical components. The arm design comprises two links and four rotating elements, with rotation carried out using a stepper motor gear directly connected to a rotating disc.
To select an appropriate motor, force calculations were carried out. In the process, the weights of the end-effector and object to be carried were taken into account.
As a first step, a free body diagram with the robot arm stretched out to its maximum length was produced, as shown in Figure 2. An articulated robot manipulator with two bars can be described as a robot with three joints—two rotational and one torsional joint—with the latter located at the manipulator base joint 1. This configuration of joints and bars gives the manipulator a three-dimensional workspace. The set of positions and orientations of the end-effector of the robot manipulator for a given set of joint angles is called the forward kinematics [ 21 , 22 ].
The control design of an articulated robot arm can be categorized into two mathematical models, namely, a kinematic and a dynamic model. The robot arm kinematics indicate the coordinate transformations to be applied in the operation and joint spaces. The proposed system has a 3-DOF robot arm, as shown in Figure 2. The direct kinematic transformation for this 3-DOF space is given by where F is the coordinate force vector of the 3-DOF robot arm and is the transformation at an individual DOF, which is given by the following matrix:.
The solution for a given position is computed using matrices or a set of algebraic equations. An appropriate derivative of equation 2 gives the solution for the velocity and acceleration of the robot arm. Inverse kinematics transformations are the opposite of forward kinematics transformations and are used to find the joint coordinates corresponding to a given set of operation coordinates.
This inverse transformation can be carried out using the transformation matrix in equation 3 or, more simply, by applying a geometric approach. In the proposed system, Joints 1 and 3 are the base and end-effector joints, respectively. The shoulder joint angle can then be calculated using the coordinate scheme shown in Figure 3. A schematic of the inverse kinematics is shown in Figure 4. After determining the method for computing the rotational angle, it is a simple task to compute the shoulder joint angle : where L 1 and L 2 are the lengths of links 1 and 2, respectively.
The wrist angle is used to position the end-effector. To derive the kinematic relations of the robot, the Lagrange approach can be applied as follows: from which the equation of motion can be obtained as.
The above equations are obtained from the matrix transformation used in deriving the direct kinematic and dynamic quantities, which include the moments of inertia and weights. These dynamic parameters are related to the DH coordinate frames defined in Figure 3. Equation 7 can then be used to obtain the control design as the following state-space linear model:. The linear state-space model in equation 10 is obtained by applying the control action vector in a modified form of the model in equation 8.
The variable matrix of the state-space model depends on the state vector. The torque around a particular joint can be calculated from the basic algebraic relation in equation 11 , which is produced by the control action represented as an auxiliary vector. The state vector has three joint angles Figure 3 with the following 3-DOF derivatives:. A custom mechanical gripper composed of stamped aluminum with a weight of approximately 0.
This configuration reduces the chance of damage to the servo but limits the gripping power. Depending on the servo motor used, the claw can open to approximately two inches and can pick up relatively heavy objects.
The gripper also has a mounting plate on its bottom side that accepts standard spacings for servo mounting, as shown in Figure 5. The complete integrated 3-DOF robot platform is shown in Figure 6.
App Inventor for Android is an open-source web application provided by Google that is currently maintained by the MIT. It enables the computer-based creation of software applications for the Android operating system. MIT App Inventor provides an innovative introduction to programming and app creation based on the transformation of text-based language coding into the visual dragging and dropping of building blocks.
The simple graphical interface allows inexperienced users to create basic, fully functional apps within an hour. App Inventor has three main modules: i the App Inventor designer, ii the App Inventor Blocks editor, and iii an emulator or Android phone. The App Inventor designer is accessible through a web page on which all editable tab icons for integration development are available on the left-hand side of the window Figure 8.
The right-hand side of the designer window allows users to view a screen and all components added to the screen. Using the App Inventor Blocks Editor, it is possible to select subblocks to create the first full-code block.
The left-hand side of the Design Screen contains a block for connecting the smartphone to the Bluetooth module. The screen also contains slider blocks for controlling the servo position and buttons for specified tasks. The final module of the MIT App Inventor is the Blocks Editor emulator, with which the user can interface via the connect option to test how the application would function in the real world.
Our android robotic platform is characterized by its low cost, robustness, flexibility, modularity, and ease of use.
Abstract- The aim of the project is to focus all axes of manipulator to lift, carry and unload the objects at a desired location. This requires a precise drive motion control that incorporates electric motors as a drive system. Raspberry pi for processing the vision data, separately making the vision system capable of recognizing the required object as per program commands. The pick and place robot is one among the technologies in manufacturing industries which is meant to perform pick and place operations. The system is so designed that it eliminates the human error and human intervention to get more precise work.
Page ANDROID CONTROLLED PICK AND PLACE ROBOTIC ARM VEHICLE The project is designed to develop a pick n place robotic vehicle with a soft.
With this, the calibration of the robotic arm is complete. Now, we are going to make a manually controlled pick and place robot using the keys of your computer. Write the code for the same. Create the script to initialize the robotic.
A pick and place robot is the one which is used to pick up an object and place it in the desired location. It can be a cylindrical robot providing movement in horizontal, vertical and rotational axes, a spherical robot providing two rotational and one linear movement, an articulate robot or a scara robot fixed robots with 3 vertical axes rotary arms. The basic function of a pick and place robot is done by its joints.
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Rajpar, Ahmad. This paper focuses on the design and development of a reconfigurable three-degree-of-freedom articulated robot for conducting pick-and-place tasks. To implement the system, an Android platform for the manual control of an articulated robot using wireless Bluetooth technology was developed. This application allows the user to manually reconfigure the robot following the requirements of the integrated system via a user-friendly display. The articulated robot comprises four motors, three of which are used for positioning and orientation and finally used to carry out the pick-and-place task. An Arduino Un R3 board is used to control the movement of the links via a pulse width modulation method. The exponential growth in mobile technology and the development of remote-control device applications in recent years has motivated researchers to go beyond closed-loop fixed industrial robotic applications to explore the tremendous potential for using open-architecture Android-based user-friendly displays to reconfigure robots to carry out designated tasks.
All Rights Reserved. Robotics has become very useful in medicine, education, military, research and mostly, in the world of manufacturing. It has become popular, useful, and has achieved great success in several fields of humanity. In this project, work is carried out on the robotic arm which is controlled using an Arduino ATMEGA micro-controller via android app. Servomotors are used for the link movements and DC motors are used for the base movement. The benefits of this work are visual movement of the device, text-to-speech recognition, compact in size and economical. The prototype developed is more user friendly and less costlier.
Abstract: The project aims in designing a Robot arm which is operated using Bluetooth and also which is capable of Picking and Placing of many objects. The advent of new high-speed technology and the growing Bluetooth Capacity provided realistic opportunity for new robot controls and realization of new methods of control theory. This technical improvement together with the need for high performance robots created faster, more accurate and more intelligent robots using new robots control devices, new drivers and advanced control algorithms. This project describes a new economical solution of robot control systems. The presented robot arm control system can be used for different sophisticated robotic applications. The modules in the project are: Bluetooth interfaced to Microcontroller, Robot arm which is capable of Picking and placing objects, DC motors is attached to the robot arm for the movement of the robot and Microcontroller which performs the controlling operations of Robot arm in Picking and Placing of objects. The controlling device of the whole system is a Microcontroller to which Bluetooth; DC motors of robot arm are interfaced through a motor driver.
Abstract: The project is meant to developed a opt for pick and place robotic vehicle with a soft catching gripper. application controlled for remote operation. All the , DC Motor, Android Bluetooth Control, Android Smart phone. 1.
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