File Name: principles and practice of phytotherapy .zip
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publishers permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website.
Phytotherapy , the use of plant -derived medications in the treatment and prevention of disease. Phytotherapy is a science -based medical practice and thus is distinguished from other, more traditional approaches, such as medical herbalism, which relies on an empirical appreciation of medicinal herbs and which is often linked to traditional knowledge.
The interpretation and acceptance of such evidence for phytotherapeutic practices varies. In some countries, it is considered sufficient to license phytotherapeutic products as medicines, whereas in other countries, phytotherapy is viewed as a form of traditional medicine. There are a number of phytotherapeutic preparations in use. Examples include preparations derived from the leaves of ginkgo Ginkgo biloba , which are used to treat a range of minor cognitive disorders and certain other disorders of the central nervous system; the aerial parts of St.
Phytotherapy entered the English language with its common definition in , having been introduced by Eric Frederick William Powell, who was an English practitioner of herbalism and homeopathy. The English term, however, did not gain wider recognition until much later. In German herbalist and physician Rudolf Fritz Weiss published Lehrbuch der Phytotherapie ; Herbal Medicine , which became the definitive German textbook on the topic.
Another important landmark in the history of phytotherapy was the emergence in of the journal Phytotherapy Research , edited by British pharmacognosist Fred Evans. In the book Rational Phytotherapy was published under the stewardship of American pharmacognosist Varro Tyler.
The terminology of the various forms of treatment associated with herbal substances remains confusing. While many consider herbal medicines with a well-defined use profile one based on scientific and medical evidence as phytotherapeutic products, others consider such products to be food supplements.
The latter implies that medicines based on herbal substances are unproven therapies, and in some countries they are treated that way. In the United States , for example, all herbal-based products are classified as dietary supplements. To complicate matters, herbalism is sometimes also referred to as phytotherapy, and both herbalism and phytotherapy are sometimes described as herbal medicine.
Likewise, preparations used in phytotherapy and in herbalism may be referred to as herbal medicines or phytomedicines. The confusion between phytotherapy and herbalism is also reflected in a complex regulatory situation, where assessments of what can or cannot be designated a medicine differ vastly.
The differences often are the result of variations in legal frameworks that have been implemented by countries or regions, such as the European Union. For places that have laws or regulations for herbal products, specific requirements for quality assurance exist.
The requirements are intended to provide a relatively high level of security to consumers by regulating the quality of the product through the supply and value chain, from the collection or wild crafting harvesting from nature of plants to the manufacture and promotion of the final product.
The products used in phytotherapy generally are produced industrially by using routine procedures, which differs from herbalism.
Thus, for phytotherapy, there is a limited difference between the batches of product sold on the market by an individual company. The composition of the same phytotherapeutic product, however, may differ from one company to the next.
A commonly used but often poorly defined concept in phytotherapy is standardization, which is the requirement of having a minimum amount of one or several active compounds or groups of compounds in the plant extract. Often a range from a minimum to a maximum amount is given.
In the field of phytotherapy, standardization applies only to extracts and by definition only to those where the active constituents are fully characterized. For example, an extract containing a certain percentage of compound class X e. The quantification often is carried out by using chromatography -based techniques e.
Standardization is intended to ensure a reproducible composition of known active constituents. For example, St. In the former, the preparations often are industrially produced extracts from the leaves and plant tops that have been standardized according to hypericin and hyperforin content or sometimes one or the other. These two substances are known to be relevant for their pharmacological effects. The extract is generally formulated as tablets or capsules.
By contrast, herbalists are likely to use a tincture of H. The practice of phytotherapy differs widely throughout the world. In some countries, such as South Korea and Japan , proven phytotherapy products are integrated into health insurance coverage.
Other countries, including China , India , and Nepal , offer wide health care coverage for herbal medicines, which fall under traditional medicine services.
In most other parts of the world, however, such products are not integrated into health care or health insurance programs. Since phytotherapy is a system of medical practice that is based on scientific or medical evidence, its products are pharmacologically active medicines, similar to conventional pharmaceutical drugs.
Thus, phytotherapy cannot be subsumed under complementary and alternative medicine CAM , which generally is linked to different philosophical principles. Phytotherapy Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. See Article History. Phytotherapeutic preparations derived from ginkgo Ginkgo biloba leaves are used in the treatment of a range of minor cognitive disorders and certain other disorders of the central nervous system.
Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Plant , kingdom Plantae , any multicellular eukaryotic life-form characterized by 1 photosynthetic nutrition a characteristic possessed by all plants except some parasitic plants and underground orchids , in which chemical energy is produced from water, minerals, and carbon dioxide with the aid of pigments and the radiant energy of the Sun, 2 ….
Disease , any harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism, generally associated with certain signs and symptoms and differing in nature from physical injury. A diseased organism commonly exhibits signs or symptoms indicative of its abnormal state. Thus, the normal condition of an organism must be…. Science , any system of knowledge that is concerned with the physical world and its phenomena and that entails unbiased observations and systematic experimentation.
In general, a science involves a pursuit of knowledge covering general truths or the operations of fundamental laws. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.
This long-awaited Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy, 2nd edition PDF covers all major aspects of herbal medicine from traditional use, fundamental concepts, and scientific research through to safety, effective dosage and clinical applications. Written by expert herbal practitioners with active experience in education, clinical practice, manufacturing and research, the ebook is both practical and evidence-based. The focus is always on the importance of tailoring the treatment to the individual case. The comprehensive and authoritative modern textbook on western herbal medicine — now in its 2nd edition. Fully referenced throughout, with more than 10, citations, the ebook Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy: Modern Herbal Medicine 2nd Edition is a core resource for university students and practitioners of phytotherapy and naturopathy and will be of value to all healthcare professionals — doctors, nurses, pharmacists — with an interest in herbal therapeutics. New appendices provide useful information on topics such as dosage in children, herbal actions, and reading and interpreting herbal clinical trials. No access codes included.
Purchase Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy - 2nd Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ,
The authoritative and comprehensive modern textbook on western herbal medicine - now in its second edition. This long-awaited second edition of Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy covers all major aspects of herbal medicine from fundamental concepts, traditional use and scientific research through to safety, effective dosage and clinical applications. Written by herbal practitioners with active experience in clinical practice, education, manufacturing and research, the textbook is both practical and evidence based. The focus, always, is on the importance of tailoring the treatment to the individual case.
Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read.Julia F. 12.12.2020 at 15:29
Request PDF | Principles and practice of phytotherapy: Modern herbal medicine | The authoritative and comprehensive modern textbook on western herbal.