File Name: dictionary of scientific and technical terms .zip
This chapter introduces the reader to specialized dictionaries, and gives an overview of some of the theoretical problems and discusses various macro- and microstructural aspects of such dictionaries. The discussion also includes the treatment of scientific and technical terms in general dictionaries, in order to highlight the differences between general and scientific dictionaries.
Topics discussed include: types of specialized dictionaries and their users; lexicography and terminography; defining the concept of a scientific or technical term; inclusion and selection; defining and labelling, and the particular challenges posed by bilingual and multilingual specialized dictionaries.
Keywords: scientific dictionaries , technical dictionaries , specialized dictionaries , lexicography and terminography , scientific or technical terms , inclusion and selection , defining and labelling , bilingual specialized dictionaries , multilingual specialized diction.
The aim of this chapter is to introduce the reader to specialized dictionaries. It will give an overview of some of the theoretical problems and discuss various macro- and microstructural aspects of such dictionaries.
The discussion will include the treatment of scientific and technical terms in general dictionaries in order to highlight the differences between general and scientific dictionaries.
Specialized and technical dictionaries are usually opposed to general dictionaries. While a general dictionary is said to deal with the general vocabulary, a specialized dictionary p. For this reason such dictionaries are also called restricted. Further names include special dictionary and language for specific purposes dictionary LSP dictionary. Note that some authors use specialized dictionary in a broader sense, in which specialized is not limited to a special subject field but to varieties of a language such as dialects or slang.
The distinction is based on the notions of general language and special language. Note, however, that these notions are very difficult to delimit and that this problem can be approached from a number of different perspectives. For a discussion, see Becker Specialized dictionaries come in large variety of types, and various criteria have been suggested to classify them.
Like general dictionaries, specialized reference books can be subdivided on the basis of the amount of encyclopaedic information they give. A specialized dictionary in a narrow sense focuses on presenting linguistic information such as orthography, grammar, pronunciation, and meaning. A specialist encyclopaedia contains information on things and concepts rather than just words. The encyclopaedic dictionary has features of both of these. While this classification has the disadvantage of presupposing that information on language and information on things is easily distinguishable, is it very simple and based on a long tradition.
See Bergenholtz and Tarp 29f. Wiegand established a classification using very similar terminology: language dictionary G. His distinction is based on the notion of genuine purpose : from a language dictionary, for example, a potential user may derive information on a linguistic object. His approach, presented here in very condensed form, is widely discussed especially in the German literature, but it does not seem to be easily manageable and is based on a theory which is not easy to handle Bergenholtz : Also, it remains unclear if it is relevant to user-oriented lexicography Tarp : Specialized dictionaries can also be distinguished on the basis of the subject field s that the dictionary treats.
If we consider a special field such as mathematics as the basic level in a hierarchy see, e. There are, however, many works below and above this level. Thus, apart from single- field dictionaries, there are also sub-field and multi-field dictionaries Bergenholtz and Tarp : A sub-field dictionary such as a dictionary of algebra can potentially cover a sub-field exhaustively, both in terms of the terminology and information given in the respective entries.
The point is exemplified by the definition for Betti number a topological concept , which includes the term direct sum and torsion group.
These are not defined in the dictionary, as they are algebraic notions. Thus, a reader unfamiliar with these concepts would need to consult an additional dictionary. It is common in mathematics to define one concept from one sub-field in terms of concepts from other sub-fields. Multi-field dictionaries may aim to treat a very broad field such as science or combine several fields. A common title for such a reference work is Dictionary of Science and Technology ; there are also various business dictionaries that fall into this category.
Such dictionaries have a smaller chance of exhaustively covering the terminology of the respective fields, and commonly focus on a small number of terms from each field. The understanding of particular scientific and technical fields may change considerably over time, and this is reflected in the corresponding reference works. For example, early printed mathematical dictionaries are based on a much broader notion of mathematics, and it was customary to cover a wide range of areas such as music, astronomy, and hydraulics.
Nowadays, as sciences specialize and fragment, subfield dictionaries are becoming a common phenomenon on the dictionary market. Maximizing dictionaries attempt to cover the greatest part of vocabulary of a given subject field.
Minimizing dictionaries, on the other hand, cover only a limited part of the field under consideration such as the most frequent terms.
Multi-field dictionaries, for example, are usually minimizing Bergenholtz and Nielsen : The name dictionary is by no means a reliable indication of whether a particular work of reference is a linguistic dictionary in the sense discussed above.
There are, for example, so-called specialized dictionaries that are encyclopaedic in nature. A brief discussion of the topic is found in Opitz f. When classifying specialized dictionaries, and more importantly in their production, the role of the potential users is as important as in general lexicography. One central factor to be considered is their knowledge of the subject field under consideration. Meanwhile, the differentiation has become more fine-grained.
Bowker f. This approach gives a more prominent role to learners of the field. For example, translators can be assumed to have an expert knowledge in the languages involved. Various further parameters can be applied to classify specialized dictionaries. These include the number of languages involved, the way the dictionary is structured alphabetic, thematic , and the medium Schaeder : Typologies of specialized dictionaries are discussed in Felber and Schaeder , and, with respect to bilingual dictionaries, in Hausmann SL is closely related to terminology, which studies scientific and technical terms, and terminography, which is concerned with the recording and presentation of such terms in reference works, including not just dictionaries, but also term banks.
A number of differences between SL and terminography have been put forward. The following list contains the most frequently named ones see, for example, Bergenholtz and Tarp : 28 :. In terms of the working method, SL is supposed to start from the linguistic sign and then proceed to its meaning semasiological approach , whereas terminography starts from the concepts and then approaches the term onomasiological approach.
SL is descriptive, terminography prescriptive. According to terminology, each term has exactly one meaning.
There is no polysemy. SL, though, allows for one term to have several meanings. SL prefers an alphabetic presentation, whereas terminography prefers a systematic one. SL may also describe terms diachronically, whereas terminography is purely synchronic. These differences have been controversially discussed in the literature. While more traditional approaches emphasized a strict dividing line between the two disciplines, more recent works challenge this approach and go as far as equating the two Bergenholtz and Tarp These oppositions should not be understood as binary, and there seems to growing agreement that there is at least a significant overlap between the two fields.
This is because most of the oppositions can be refuted. For instance, it is by no means the case that specialized dictionaries are always alphabetically arranged. A number of different kinds of criteria have been suggested to define the concept of a scientific or technical term.
Linguistic criteria are frequently unreliable to distinguish a technical term from a general word. In fact, in most cases it seems more appropriate to speak of tendencies rather than criteria.
Monosemy is also an unreliable trait: not only may a term such as field be part of the vocabulary of various disciplines such as physics and mathematics admittedly, some authors prefer to call these cases of homonymy , but there are also cases of terms having different definitions in one and the same field or sub-field, such as ring in algebra 2 Eisenreich : Also, there are a number of metonymical patterns that increase polysemy.
For example, side is a geometrical object, but the word is also used to denote the length of such an object. In general language, long bone points to an everyday situation and simply refers to a bone considered to be long, whereas in biology long bone is precisely defined and points to a specific scientifically constructed model.
The term is part of a coherent system of terms and to understand it, no reference to a concrete situation is necessary. Sociologically or sociolinguistically, it has been said that scientific or technical terms belong to a specialized community of scientists or professionals e. Martin : In this process their meaning is frequently broadened and the concept becomes more vague. While this is not a distinctive trait of terms and applies to general words as well, it is essential to consult experts from the respective fields in this and various other stages in the production.
The lexicographer will frequently depend on experts to gain an overview of the conceptual structure of a subject field, to select the terms to be included, and to write the definitions and label the entries. While in the meantime it has been convincingly argued how special purpose corpora can be designed and put into practice Bowker and Pearson : chs 3, 4 , the use of expert advice is essential at this stage.
It is not just the case that the number of scientific and technical terms has increased enormously since the twentieth century, but also, as Landau 33f. One reason for this is the fact that new scientific and technical concepts are presented to and discussed by a much larger public than previously possible.
It is now common, at least for the bigger dictionaries, to point to their coverage of scientific terms as a positive feature in advertising. The coverage of scientific and technical terms in general dictionaries also depends on historical and national factors, however.
And even a cursory p. Neither does the actual coverage seem to be as deep as in comparable English dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries typically contain some of the following information, given here in a typical order. In many specialized dictionaries the usage guide is extremely short. Sometimes it is even part of the preface and consists of just a few lines. For example, the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics 4th ed. This practice can be justified if the types of information given in the dictionary is limited, for example in the case of encyclopaedic dictionaries which focus on the semantic content of the entry word.
The usage guide and the preface should at least contain information on the intended readership of the dictionary, it should explain what fields and sub-fields are covered and to what extent, and it should give the reader a clear understanding of what information can be found in the entries and how they should be read. It must also be made clear how the book is arranged and where the terms can be found for example in connection with compound terms, which are particularly relevant for special fields.
The list of contributors is indicative of the comprehensiveness and accuracy which it is intended to achieve.
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Then lexicographers come up against difficulties of a different nature altogether, even though the limit between the various kinds of words is not precise: the problems of polysemy, of sense division, of syntax and of co-occurrence, associated with the more common words, become less and less acute. But the selection of words becomes more difficult, and the definition of specialized words requires the help of specialists of each domain. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account?
They all include pictures and are downloadable as pdf's. Seems to sometimes include full articles. Work in progress, but gives images of relevant pages with a clickable index. Always verify in native expert sources. The next two links are Russian resources that include translations of the material in the VIM, complete with section references so they can be compared to French and English terms. Glossary, definitions, chemistry, manufacturing. Includes several FDA resources tutorial, procedure manual, etc.
McGraw Hill dictionary of scientific and technical terms was first published in. The aim of this dictionary was to address the needs created by the inadequate.
Introducing new scientific language to students can cause considerable confusion, particularly when the students may have established a different understanding of the terms from their everyday use. Careful thought needs to be given to the selection of new scientific terms, the choice of language used in definitions and the implications of prior understandings based on everyday use. The term may also be used to describe the natural gas used in homes for cooking or space heating. It is reasonable to expect this common usage of the word to lead to some confusion when the scientific use of the word is introduced.
Access options available:. Reviews22 1 Sybil P. Parker, ed.
This chapter introduces the reader to specialized dictionaries, and gives an overview of some of the theoretical problems and discusses various macro- and microstructural aspects of such dictionaries. The discussion also includes the treatment of scientific and technical terms in general dictionaries, in order to highlight the differences between general and scientific dictionaries. Topics discussed include: types of specialized dictionaries and their users; lexicography and terminography; defining the concept of a scientific or technical term; inclusion and selection; defining and labelling, and the particular challenges posed by bilingual and multilingual specialized dictionaries. Keywords: scientific dictionaries , technical dictionaries , specialized dictionaries , lexicography and terminography , scientific or technical terms , inclusion and selection , defining and labelling , bilingual specialized dictionaries , multilingual specialized diction. The aim of this chapter is to introduce the reader to specialized dictionaries. It will give an overview of some of the theoretical problems and discuss various macro- and microstructural aspects of such dictionaries.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms. (review). Jens Zorn. Dictionaries: Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America, Number. 10,
Reviews22 1 Sybil P. Parker, ed. McGraw-Hill has published a fourth edition of their durable scientific and technical dictionary, a volume designed to help readers fight their way through the thickets of technical literature. Parker and her collaborators present us with more than , entries and a series of useful appendices in a thick, yet manageable, reference work. The dictionary is, on the whole, a satisfactory source, even though it does not in every instance meet its announced purpose of being intelligible to the general, technically inclined reader.
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Dictionaries of science and technology possess power because they contribute to the scientific knowledge economy by creating knowledge and acting as products of capitalism.Nanna M. 15.12.2020 at 12:15
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