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Overview of thin film deposition techniques[J]. Article views PDF downloads Cited by Figures 4.

Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. Thin Solid Films is an international journal which serves scientists and engineers working in the fields of thin-film synthesis , characterization , and applications. The field of thin films , which can be defined as the confluence of materials science, surface science, and applied physics, has become an

Thin Solid Films

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Start by pressing the button below! Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.

Library of Congress Card No. KGaA, Boschstr. Registered names, trademarks, etc. Composition Toppan Best-set Premedia Ltd. It may be changed by the surrounding medium either unintentionally for example, by corrosion or intentionally due to technological demands. B6, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim , in which practitioners give a brief outline of various important methods. The present book is based on that chapter. Thus, the book now comprises the most important methods and should help the analyst to make decisions on the proper choice of methods for a given problem.

For more detailed information on any of these topics, the reader is referred to the special literature given in the references. The editors are gratefully indebted to all contributors who were ready to redirect time from their research, educational, and private activities in order to contribute to this book. They also wish to thank Mrs Silke Kittel for her tireless help in developing our editorial ideas.

Almost all chapters of this book have been thoroughly revised, taking into consideration new developments on the described methods as well as valuable feedback from the First Edition.

However, the given internet addresses should serve to guide readers to the desired information and contacts to their local distributors. The editors would like to thank all authors for revising and updating their chapters from the First Edition of the book, and all new authors for writing the new chapters and for revising some of the chapters already in existence.

To those authors who were unable to revise their chapters themselves, we are certainly indebted that they agreed to a revision of their chapters by new authors.

Finally, we would like to thank Dr. Bernadette Cabo for the helpful and pleasant communication during the production process. Department Berlin Albert-Einstein-Str. The surfaces of solids play an overriding part in a remarkably large number of processes, phenomena, and materials of technological importance. These include: catalysis; corrosion, passivation, and rusting; adhesion; tribology, friction, and wear; brittle fracture of metals and ceramics; microelectronics; composites; surface treatments of polymers and plastics; protective coatings; superconductors; and solid-surface reactions of all types with gases, liquids, or other solids.

The surfaces in question are not always external; processes occurring at inner surfaces such as interfaces and grain boundaries are often just as critical to the behavior of the material. In all of the above examples, the nature of a process or of the behavior of a material can be understood completely only if information about both the surface composition i. Furthermore, knowledge of the arrangement of surface atoms i. First of all, what is meant by a solid surface?

In practice, this decay distance is of the order of 5—20 nm. Edited by Gernot Friedbacher, Henning Bubert. The answer is twofold. Even at the surface of a perfect single crystal the surface atoms behave differently from those in the bulk, simply because they do not have the same number of nearest neighbors; their electronic distributions are altered, and hence their reactivity.

Their structural arrangement is often also different. When the surface of a polycrystalline or glassy multielemental solid is considered — such as that of an alloy or a chemical compound — the situation can be very complex. The processes of preparation or fabrication can produce a material, the surface composition of which is quite different from that of the bulk, in terms of both constituent and impurity elements.

Subsequent treatment e. The surface is highly unlikely to be smooth, and roughness at both the micro and macro level can be present, leading to the likelihood that many surface atoms will be situated at corners and edges and on protuberances i.

Surfaces exposed to the atmosphere, which include many of those of technological interest, will acquire a contaminant layer that is one to two atom layers thick, containing principally carbon and oxygen but also other impurities present in the local environment. Atmospheric exposure might also cause oxidation. Because of all these possibilities, the surface region must be considered as a separate entity, effectively a separate quasi-two-dimensional 2-D phase overlaying the normal bulk phase.

Nearly all these techniques involve interrogation of the surface with a particle probe. The function of the probe is to excite surface atoms into states giving rise to the emission of one or more of a variety of secondary particles such as electrons, photons, ions, and neutrals. Since the primary particles used in the probing beam can also be electrons or photons, or ions or neutrals, many separate techniques are possible, each based on a different primary—secondary particle combination.

In this book, therefore, most space is devoted to those surface analytical techniques that are widely applied and readily available commercially, whereas much briefer descriptions are provided of some others, the use of which is less common but which — under appropriate circumstances, particularly in basic research — can provide vital information.

Since the various types of particle can appear in both primary excitation and secondary emission, most authors and reviewers have found it convenient to group the techniques in a matrix, in which the rows refer to the nature of the exciting particle and the columns to the nature of the emitted particle.

Such a matrix of techniques is provided in Table 1. The 1 Introduction Table 1. The acronyms see Listing 1. Table 1. These techniques are listed in Table 1. Meanings of the surface analysis acronyms, and their alternatives, that appear in Tables 1. Werner X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS is one of the most widely used surface analytical techniques, and is therefore described here in more detail than any of the other techniques. At its inception by Siegbahn and coworkers [1], it was called ESCA electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis , but the name ESCA is now considered too general, as many surface electron spectroscopies exist, and the name given to each one must be precise.

Nevertheless, the name ESCA is still used in many places, particularly in industrial laboratories and their publications. The ejected electron may come from a core level or from the occupied portion of the valence band, but in XPS most attention is focused on the electrons in core levels.

As no two elements share the same set of electronic binding energies, measurement of the photoelectron kinetic energies enables elemental analysis.

In addition, Equation 2. Left: Auger process; Right: photoelectron emission process. Electrons involved in the emission processes are indicated by open circles.

Although XPS is concerned principally with photoelectrons and their kinetic energies, the ejection of electrons by other processes also occurs. An ejected photoelectron leaves behind a core hole in the atom.

The sequence of events following the creation of the core hole is shown schematically in Figure 2. X-ray photon emission i. Thus, in all X-ray photoelectron spectra, features appear due to both photoemission and Auger emission. The two are equivalent, the different usages having arisen for historical reasons, but the differentiation is a convenient one. The principal quantum number n can take values 1, 2, 3, 4, …. The equivalence of the two notations is set out in Table 2.

In X-ray notation, the Auger transition shown in Figure 2. In this coupling scheme, six Auger transitions would be possible in the KLL series. Obviously, many other series are possible e. These are discussed more fully in Chapter 3.

An electron with kinetic energy E moving through a solid matrix M has a probability of traveling a certain distance before losing all or part of its energy as a result of an inelastic collision. Figure 2. What this means in practice is that if the photoelectron or the Auger electron is to escape into a vacuum and be detected, it must originate at or very near the surface of the solid.

Furthermore, the inelastic mean free path is of paramount importance for quantifying XPS-data. Presently, it is most commonly accepted that the calculations, and in particular the semiempirical formula for the IMFP, by Tanuma, Powell, and Penn, constitute a reliable source for this quantity [4].

The requirement for UHV conditions imposes restrictions on the types of material that can be used for the construction of surface analytical systems, or inside the systems, because UHV can be achieved only by accelerating the rate of removal of gas molecules from internal surfaces by raising the temperature of the entire system i. Inside the system, any material is permissible that does not produce volatile components either during normal operation or during baking.

For example, brass which contains the volatile metal zinc cannot be used. For the same reasons, metal seals — not elastomers — are used for the demountable joints between individual components; the sealing material normally used is pure copper, although gold is sometimes employed. Other materials that may be used between ambient atmosphere and UHV are borosilicate glass or quartz for windows, and alumina for electrical insulation for current or voltage connections. Equation 2.

Since the energy spread — or linewidth — of an electron in a core level is very small, the linewidth of the photoelectron energy depends on the linewidth of the source, if no undue broadening is introduced instrumentally.

In XPS, the analyst devotes much effort to extracting chemical information by means of detailed study of individual elemental photoelectron spectra. Such a study needs an energy resolution better than 1. Other considerations are that the source material — which forms a target for high-energy electron bombardment leading to the production of X-rays — should be a good conductor to allow the rapid removal of heat, and it should also be compatible with UHV.

Table 2. Thus, a switch from one type of X-irradiation to the other can be made very quickly. To protect the sample from stray electrons from the anode, from heating effects, and from possible contamination by the source enclosure, a thin ca.

The entire X-ray source is therefore retractable by means of a bellows and a screw mechanism. The X-radiation from magnesium and aluminum sources is quite complex.

Illustration courtesy of Kratos Analytical. The X-ray source is positioned at one point on a spherical surface, called a Rowland sphere, and a quartz crystal is placed at another point.

Surface and Thin Film Analysis. Read more. Introduction to Surface and Thin Film Processes. Introduction to surface and thin film processes. Thin-film optical filters.

Fundamentals of Surface Thin Film Analysis

This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate. Library of Congress Card No. KGaA, Boschstr.

This section of NIM-B will bring reviews of books relevant for the regular readership of the journal. Books for review should be sent to one of the Editors. Feldman and J. Mayer North-Holland, Amster- dam, pp. ISBN O

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The recent development of new advanced materials demands extensive effort in developing new analytical techniques that can provide insight into material composition at the nanoscale, particularly at surfaces and interfaces, which is important for both fabrication and material performance. Here, we present a proof of principle for a new setup used for thin-film characterisation and depth profiling based on a combination of time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis TOF-ERDA and Ar sputtering.


Get this from a library! Fundamentals of surface and thin film analysis. [Leonard C Feldman; James W Mayer].


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The course will outline strategies for most efficient applications on the methods for analysis and characte-rization of thin films and coatings in order to optimize synthesis processes. Characterization techniques will be compared and a sequence of their optimal use will be outlined. Surface, interface and bulk composition as well as phase and microstructure govern the properties of the materials. Deposition techniques and conditions influence the composition and microstructure.

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Thin Solid Films

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Fundamentals of surface and thin film analysis. North‐Holland, New York–​Amsterdam–London, , Seiten, Abb., 9 Tabellen im Anhang, ca.


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Fundamentals of surface and thin film analysis: by L.C. Feldman and J.W. Mayer (North-Holland,...

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Practical Thin Film Characterization – 4/28/20

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