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Tongue Parts And Functions Pdf

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The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication and is used in the act of swallowing. It has importance in the digestive system and is the primary organ of taste in the gustatory system. The tongue's upper surface dorsum is covered by taste buds housed in numerous lingual papillae. It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva and is richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels. The tongue also serves as a natural means of cleaning the teeth.

Anatomy of the Tongue and Taste Buds

There are four pairs of intrinsic muscles which allow the tongue to change shape. It shortens the tongue and dorsiflexes its tip. The inferior longitudinal muscles which shorten and provide ventroflexion to the tongue. The transverse muscles run laterally across the tongue and connect the medial septum to the lateral aspect of the organ.

They help in narrowing the tongue. The vertical muscle connects the inferior and the superior and the inferior surfaces of the tongue. They help the tongue to flatten. There are many extrinsic muscles of the tongue originating outside the organ and insert into it at various points. These muscles are. Palatoglossus: In initiates the process of swallowing.

Styloglossus: Pulls the sides of the tongue up and pulls tongue back. Hyoglossus: depresses the organ. Genioglossus: Extends and depresses the organ. Geniohyoid: Depresses mandible and elevates hyoid.

At their inner ends, the taste receptor cells synapse with afferent sensory neurons conduct information to the brain. Each receptor cell synapses have several afferent sensory neurons and each afferent neuron branches to several taste papillae. Then each branch makes contact with many receptor cells.

The afferent sensory neurons occur in three different nerves, these are the facial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve, and the vagus nerve. Taste receptor cells or taste buds of vertebrates are continually renewed throughout the lifetime of the organism.

There are three types of glands scattered throughout the tongue:. Mucous Glands. Serous Glands. Lymph Nodes. They make saliva which helps in chewing swallowing and digestion of food. Five known tastes can be detected by taste buds or taste receptor cells.

These are. Sweet: The sweet taste is produced by carbohydrates such as sucrose and fructose, as well as artificial sweeteners such as aspartame and saccharine.

Salty: The salty taste is formed by salts containing sodium ions, such as sodium chloride table salt and sodium bicarbonate baking soda. Salts containing potassium, lithium, and other alkali metal ions also produce a mildly salty flavour. Sour: Sour taste is generated by acidic compounds, such as vinegar and citric acid found in lemon. Bitter: Bitter taste is produced by a range of organic compounds and is considered an unpalatable flavour.

Umami: Umami, or savouriness, is the most recently discovered taste. Meat, mushrooms, cheese, all contain glutamate. Although all taste buds can sense all tastes, specific taste buds have a slightly higher sensitivity for certain tastes.

The functions of the tongue include:. The helps in chewing food with the help of saliva. Deglutition: The tongue also helps in swallowing food. Taste: Taste buds on the tongue transmits taste signals to the brain and assists in sensing taste.

Speech: Tongue plays a direct role in facilitating speech. Secretion: The organ also secretes mucous and serous fluid keeping the mouth moist.

Tongue map

The domestic duck, as a representative of birds living in the water, is considered as a specialist filter-feeder. Behavioral observations of foraging revealed that these birds also use a terrestrial feeding mechanism such as grazing and pecking. This study examined the entirety of the lingual mucosa in relation to the structural adaptations required for this range of feeding activities. The structures on the lateral surfaces of the tongue, the conical and filiform papillae, constitute the food filtration apparatus. The process of pecking involves the spatula-shaped apex of the tongue and a specific horny plate—the lingual nail.

Though the tongue may seem like a simple organ, it has a wide range of purposes, such as licking, breathing, tasting, swallowing and articulating speech. Its many talents are due to the construction of the tongue. Typically a human tongue is around 3. The tongue consists of eight interwoven, striated muscles that can move in any direction, making it quite flexible. Throughout the muscles are glands and fat, while the outside is covered by a mucus membrane. The top of the tongue, also called the dorsum, is covered with papillae, tiny nodes that contain the taste buds and the serous glands.


Note the concentration of fungiform papillae (dots) on the tip of the tongue. number of vallate papillae did not appear to change systematically as a function of age. In chickens and quail, taste buds in nonlingual parts of the oral cavity are.


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The mouth is lined by stratified squamous epithelium, from which oral smears may be taken for chromosomal studies. The temperature in the mouth is about 37 degrees C. Mouth-to-mouth and mouth-to-nose are important methods of artificial respiration. The oral cavity consists of two portions, the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.

It does not have any bones. It is reddish-pink in color. The main function of tongue is taste, help in chewing food, in swallowing food and speech.

The tongue map or taste map is a common misconception that different sections of the tongue are exclusively responsible for different basic tastes. It is illustrated with a schematic map of the tongue, with certain parts of the tongue labeled for each taste.

 - Поэтому я его и попросил. Я не мог позволить себе роскошь… - Директор знает, что вы послали в Испанию частное лицо. - Сьюзан, - сказал Стратмор, уже теряя терпение, - директор не имеет к этому никакого отношения. Он вообще не в курсе дела.

Это была сумка Меган. Беккер рванулся. Вобрав голову в плечи, он ударил убийцу всем телом, отшвырнув его на раковину.

Structure of Tongue: Introduction, Functions of Tongue, Parts and Elements of the Tongue

Халохот внимательно проследил взглядом всю ее длину.

 - Слова лились потоком, словно ждали много лет, чтобы сорваться с его губ.  - Я люблю. Я люблю .

Недовольно поморщившись, Сьюзан закрыла окно экранного замка, но в ту долю секунды, когда оно исчезало с экрана, она заметила нечто необычное. Снова открыв окно, Сьюзан изучила содержащуюся в нем информацию. Какая-то бессмыслица. Вначале был зарегистрирован нормальный ввод замка, в тот момент, когда она выходила из помещения Третьего узла, однако время следующей команды отпирания показалось Сьюзан странным. Две эти команды разделяло меньше одной минуты, но она была уверена, что разговаривала с коммандером больше минуты.

Parts Of The Tongue And Their Function

 Это так важно? - полувопросительно произнес Джабба. - Очень важно, - сказал Смит.  - Если бы Танкадо подозревал некий подвох, он инстинктивно стал бы искать глазами убийцу. Как вы можете убедиться, этого не произошло. На экране Танкадо рухнул на колени, по-прежнему прижимая руку к груди и так ни разу и не подняв глаз.

Честь. Страна. Любовь. Дэвид Беккер должен был погибнуть за первое, второе и третье.

The Tongue: Facts, Function & Diseases

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PlutГіn G. 03.01.2021 at 22:50

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