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Forward Engineering And Reverse Engineering In Uml Pdf

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Reverse engineering also known as backwards engineering or back engineering is a process or method through the application of which one attempts to understand through deductive reasoning how a device, process, system, or piece of software accomplishes a task with very little if any insight into exactly how it does so.

It also permits forward engineering FE and reverse engineering RE. FE and RE [Som04] are engineering processes. The objective of FE is to produce an implementation starting with a specification or a design. The objective of RE is to recover a design or a specification from an implementation.

Forward engineering and UML: from UML static models to Eiffel code

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To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Petri Selonen. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper.

This paper discusses a UML-based software maintenance process relying on two subprocesses: reverse engineering and model analysis. The former combines a top-down reverse engineering technique with traditional bottom-up reverse engineering activities, while the latter utilizes a set of UML model processing techniques for analyzing the architecture models. During the evolution of the software architecture, the whole procedure is iterated for individual releases of the subject system.

The main driver of the presented work has been to enable the software architects to analyze the structural dependencies that exist in large software systems. Those dependencies are often unclear, hidden in the details of the implementation or just not shown at the right level of abstraction. Hence, the typical search to extract "the big picture" of the system can bring up a clear understanding of its major components and their interactions.

To customize UML for a certain domain or for certain e. A profile is essentially an extension the UML specification using its built-in extension mechanisms. We define an architectural profile [SeX03] as a UML profile variant which presents a set of architectural rules and specifies a subset of UML models that can be considered legal in a particular context. In essence, the architectural profiles describe an architecture modeling language that the designer must follow.

In the reverse engineering subprocess, finding the mappings between the source code and the UML architectural descriptions requires several steps.

The subprocess is guided by the architectural profile descriptions constructed for a product line, product family, or product platform under investigation: the profile defines what concepts are architecturally relevant and to be recovered from the implementation. When maintaining software architectures, changes in the source code during the evolution of the software need to be mapped and reflected against the architectural descriptions and rules.

These rules and profile descriptions as well as the pre-existing software architecture models can be used to guide the reverse engineering process, especially when constructing abstract and design level UML models from the extracted low-level data.

Still, the construction of UML models from the source code is far from straightforward, even if an object-oriented programming language has been used. Because of the differences in concepts at the design and implementation levels, interpretations are necessary even for the extraction of class diagrams from the source code.

Consequently, we use a middle model, containing the detailed and accurate information of the subject software, from which the UML views are constructed. This way, the reverse engineer has a better control on the model construction In the model analysis subprocess, the models are checked against the profiles to indicate whether the given architectural rules have been followed when maintaining and further developing the subject system.

Also, various UML model processing operations can be defined and used e. The operations can be used e. We have developed a technique and a tool for validating a given UML model against the architectural profiles [SeX03]. The architectural profiles should be followed correctly in the architecture design and maintenance process in order to guarantee that the resulting architecture design has necessary properties, or lacks undesirable ones.

This paper introduces the architecture maintenance approach and gives examples of its application for maintaining a large-scale product platform architecture and real-life product-line products built on top of this platform.

In addition, even new systems built from scratch typically rely on, or are subject to, existing architectures and platform or domain specific rules and restrictions. A system is typically not static but evolving over time due to e. To be able to maintain a software system, a necessary level of design documentation must usually be kept up and maintained in synch with the actual implementation model. When there are changes in the system, these changes should propagate through the whole model hierarchy.

This is essential to produce a well-maintained model. With a single system, the synchronization of the model hierarchy can be done by hand, though this is often tedious and error-prone. However, when the focus is switched onto product lines, product families, and product platforms, the importance of the models dramatically increases, as does the effort involved in maintaining them. Changes in product platforms affect all its products depending on the particular architecture.

When several products and several design teams are involved, the need to be able to specify domain, productline, and product platform specific conventions, rules, and restrictions grows more important. Figure 1 illustrates the overall maintenance process described in this paper. The two enclosed subprocesses are a reverse engineering process RE-process and a model analysis process MA-process.

These processes involve the tools, techniques, and also design decisions made by participating designers. The scheme also includes three models.

The implementation model, typically represented as nested graphs in reverse engineering tools, includes both the source code and more abstract representations in a suitable format. The architectural views are architecture representations and analysis views in UML.

The architectural profiles describe the domain-specific concepts and architecture conventions, styles, restrictions, and rules as a set of UML profiles. The RE-process combines bottom-up and top-down reverse engineering approaches.

The existing architectural views if any and architectural profiles guide the subprocess from a top level. The implementation-level artifacts are gradually abstracted and mapped to the high-level concepts. The result is a new set of architectural views, translated into UML. The MA-process analyzes these architectural views against architectural view profiles and existing architectural views, either against previous versions or reference models e.

Both subprocesses build new models based on existing ones. In addition, human interaction is involved throughout the whole maintenance process and affects the included subprocesses. Consequently, the maintenance process is not static but incremental and iterative: new versions of architectural view profiles, architectural views, and implementation models are produced whenever necessary.

Both involved processes are selfimproving: during each iteration cycle, they are evaluated against the new and existing models and modified accordingly if necessary. As a typical usage scenario for the process, consider a situation where a potentially outdated forward engineered architecture model already exists.

An initial description of the domain is mapped to a first version of an architectural profile. The process goes as follows The RE-process takes the existing forward engineered model, together with the architectural profiles, as its top-down level input. Guided by them, the bottom-up reverse engineering is started.

After generating a set of intermediate model representations, each typically raising the level of abstraction, a suitable level of abstraction is reached. The MA-process validates the architecture model generated in step 2 against the architectural view profiles and reports the incidents potentially violating the domain-specific conventions and selected architectural styles and constraints.

The MA-process can compare the new set of architectural views against the previously generated ones. The results obtained in step 3 and additional view generation i.

The changes introduced in step 4 are mapped back to the implementation model. The changes in the implementation model, the architectural profiles, and the architecture models are, in turn, used for modifying RE-and MAprocesses.

The cycle can begin again from step 1. The process described in Figure 1 does not in any way dictate in which order the overall process is executed, nor does it take any position on how the subprocesses are constructed: what tools should be used, what the models should be like, etc.

Experience suggests that the process, subprocesses, and related techniques should be -and must be -customized for every domain they are applied to. A process execution cycle can modify several models simultaneously. Since the description of the processes can also be seen as models, the models themselves are subject to changes and improvements.

The conceptual profile defines the fundamental concepts types that are used throughout the entire architecture design and description, and the view profiles specify the concepts and rules that are specific only to this architectural view.

We define a view profile for each selected architectural concern of the architecture descriptions. Together the architectural profiles are put in a profile hierarchy where all the view profiles depend on the conceptual profile. A view profile may depend on other view profiles as well, depending on its properties. Next, we present a profile hierarchy, corresponding profiles, and the process of establishing the two.

While they are tied to a particular case study, they should go on to illustrate the adopted profile-based approach. The case study, concerning a product-line of mobile terminal software built on top of a common platform, is discussed in more detail Section 6. The original software architecture of the product platform was described in a platform reference architecture document and an architecture design model. Basic UML notations, mainly class diagrams, were used for describing the reference architecture and the logical view model [RXM01].

The platform reference architecture document is a textual document with some complementary UML diagrams. The reference architecture document describes the architecture style used, namely a client-server style, the types of all the architectural elements and their relationships, and the interaction patterns between them. To use our tools for automating the architectural model validation process, we transformed the reference architecture descriptions into UML architectural profiles.

All profiles have two parts, a stereotype definition part that defines the types of architectural elements with UML stereotypes, and a constraint part that specifies the allowed relationship among those types.

Conceptual ProfileThe Conceptual Profile describes the conceptual model that specifies the architectural style and the validation rules with class diagrams. Figures 3 and 4 show examples of the stereotype definition for the mobile terminal software system model. The Package Structure View profile defines how the system is decomposed into a hierarchy of namespaces subsystems, packages and which namespaces are allowed to reside under each other.

Figure 6 shows a simplified example of the profile: on the left side the package types are defined through stereotypes and, on the right side we define the constraints of the system decomposition structure. This package hierarchy mainly describes a functional decomposition of the system, but it also serves as a means of organizing and managing both the design and implementation artifacts.

Figure 5. Constraint definition for the conceptual profile. Layer View ProfileThe layer view profile introduces a conceptual decomposition of the system. The stereotype definition part in Figure 7 introduces the concept of a layer and three specific layer types. The constraint profile specifies how to a layer can be composed of the architecture concepts defined in other profiles and what dependencies are allowed between the layers left-hand and right-hand side of Figure 8, respectively , effectively leading to a three-layer architecture style.

After architecture model elements are mapped to the presented concepts, the model can be recomposed and the relationships checked. We can also define other conceptual views by giving alternative system decomposition, for example, to define an organizational view showing the development teams and their relationships based on the components they are in charge of.

The process is based on a series of transformations that abstract the facts extracted from the implementation in the UML model.

Forward and reverse engineering in uml pdf

Forward engineering and Reverse engineering are part of the re-engineering process and closely related. The crucial difference between the forward engineering and reverse engineering is that forward engineering employs the change in the subject system during restructuring. Conversely, reverse engineering whole sole purpose is to examine the system to obtain its more abstract design. Software re-engineering is nothing but the re-implementation of the legacy system to achieve more sustainability. The evolution of the system requires the assimilation of the existing system that has to be changed so that the system can be altered by implementing the changes. Basis for comparison Forward Engineering Reverse Engineering Basic Development of the application with provided requirements.

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Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. I need to maintain some project in Java, but it is very big. Is there something what can help me? This is a commercial application with lots of stuff, but for what you need to do, you are fine with the evaluation key. How to generate UML diagrams especially sequence diagrams from Java code. I recommend Architexa for its great class digram generation.

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Want to edit, but don't see an edit button when logged in? Click here. Tools to help with designing a schema, via creating Entity-Relationship diagrams and similar. Most are GUI.

Forward Engineering: Forward Engineering is a method of creating or making an application with the help of the given requirements. Forward engineering is also known as Renovation and Reclamation. Forward engineering is required high proficiency skill. It takes more time to construct or develop an application. Reverse Engineering: Reverse Engineering is also known as backward engineering, is the process of forward engineering in reverse.

Forward engineering the process of starting at the gathering of requirements. Reverse engineering attempting to reconstruct the logical data model from a physical data model. Before reverse engineering, you must open the uml project from the java project. Modeling the distribution and of objects is discussed in.

Некоторое время он сидел словно парализованный, затем в панике выбежал в коридор. - Мидж.

Difference Between Forward Engineering and Reverse Engineering

Дэвид молчал. - Расскажи.  - Она надулась.

Он упал. И в следующее мгновение не осталось ничего, кроме черной бездны. ГЛАВА 102 Стратмор спустился на нижний этаж ТРАНСТЕКСТА и ступил с лесов в дюймовый слой воды на полу. Гигантский компьютер содрогался мелкой дрожью, из густого клубящегося тумана падали капли воды. Сигналы тревоги гремели подобно грому.

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 Из самолета? - повторила.  - Что происходит. С какой стати университетский профессор… Это не университетские дела. Я позвоню и все объясню.

Техники в задней части комнаты не откликнулись. Все их внимание было приковано к ВР. Последний щит угрожающе таял.

В нескольких милях от этого места человек в очках в железной оправе сидел на заднем сиденье фиата, мчавшегося по проселочной дороге.

ГЛАВА 59 Сьюзан протянула руку, и коммандер Стратмор помог ей подняться по лестнице в помещение шифровалки. А перед глазами у нее стоял образ Фила Чатрукьяна, его искалеченного и обгоревшего тела, распростертого на генераторах, а из головы не выходила мысль о Хейле, притаившемся в лабиринтах шифровалки. Правда открылась со всей очевидностью: Хейл столкнул Чатрукьяна. Нетвердой походкой Сьюзан подошла к главному выходу- двери, через которую она вошла сюда несколько часов .

Панк да и. Беккер принадлежал к миру людей, носивших университетские свитера и консервативные стрижки, - он просто не мог представить себе образ, который нарисовала Росио. - Попробуйте припомнить что-нибудь .

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Он стоял с безучастным видом, словно происходящее его никак не касалось.


Remo G. 28.12.2020 at 21:53

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IreГ±e B. 01.01.2021 at 16:22

PDF | On Jan 1, , Andreas de Blanche and others published A Comparative Study of Forward and Reverse Engineering in UML Tools | Find, read and cite.

Laura H. 02.01.2021 at 16:33

The most commonly used standard today is the Unified Modeling Language.