File Name: what is tsunami and its causes .zip
Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. A tsunami can kill or injure people and damage or destroy buildings and infrastructure as waves come in and go out. A tsunami is a series of enormous ocean waves caused by earthquakes, underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, or asteroids. Tsunamis can:.
The tsunami that affected the coasts of the Indian ocean on December 26, claimed close to lives, mainly on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which suffered overwhelming devastation. This article asks whether a tsunami warning system is needed in the Indian Ocean, where the probability of experiencing a similar catastrophe is very small. In addition, other alternatives, including land use planning and education focused on tsunami risk management, are presented. Their application could considerably reduce financial and human losses if a disaster of this nature was to occur again. Keywords: tsunami, natural hazard, hazard, vulnerability, risk management, warning system, land use planning, education. It was this tectonic movement that caused the tsunami, which in a few hours caused nearly deaths, the equivalent of all the natural disasters of the previous ten years, and the displacement of more than one and a half million people living on the coastlines of twelve countries and two continents Table 1. Table 1: Countries affected by the tsunami, number of dead, missing, total 1 and displaced persons statistics for 6th May
Known tsunamis of volcanic origin are reviewed and classified according to their causes. Ten causes of volcanic tsunamis are discussed. From the risk point of view, those due to landslides are particularly dangerous. Eruptions at calderas are more likely to generate tsunamis than eruptions elsewhere. Of those killed directly by volcanic eruptions, nearly a quarter have died as a result of tsunamis.
Although rare, tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of tsunamis on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Data on the impact of tsunamis were compiled using two methods, a historical review from to mid of tsunami events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review to October of publications. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between tsunami mortality and characteristics using STATA There were , deaths range ,, and 48, injuries range 45,, as a result of tsunamis from to Findings from the systematic literature review indicate that the primary cause of tsunami-related mortality is drowning, and that females, children and the elderly are at increased mortality risk.
The main cause of tsunami generation in the Mediterranean Sea is tectonic activity associated with strong earthquakes. However, tsunami waves are also generated by landslides. From a compilation of 32 reliable cases of landslide tsunamis it comes out that most of them were caused by subaerial landslides or marine slides induced mainly by earthquakes and less frequently by volcanic eruptions. Others were caused by gravitative landslides or marine slides. The most frequent events were observed in the Corinth Gulf, Greece 11 out of 32 cases. In the volcanic Aeolian islands, Italy, 7 out of 32 cases were reported. In the Hellenic arc only 3 events are known, in contrast to the abundant, large-size tsunamis of seismotectonic origin historically documented.
Although tsunami may be caused by landslides, volcanic eruptions or even by the impact of a large meteorite falling on the ocean, most destructive tsunamis are generated by massive undersea earthquakes, occurring at depth less than 50 km with the epicentre or fault line near or on the ocean floor. Image Courtesy : public. A strong undersea earthquake with magnitude greater than 7. Waves are formed as the displaced water attempts to regain its equilibrium under the influence of gravity.
The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22, lives. In , the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami.
Решив, что никакой опасности нет, Стратмор запустил файл, минуя фильтры программы Сквозь строй. Сьюзан едва могла говорить. - Никакой Цифровой крепости не существует, - еле слышно пробормотала она под завывание сирены и, обессилев, склонилась над своим компьютером. Танкадо использовал наживку для дурачков… и АНБ ее проглотило. Сверху раздался душераздирающий крик Стратмора. ГЛАВА 86 Когда Сьюзан, едва переводя дыхание, появилась в дверях кабинета коммандера, тот сидел за своим столом, сгорбившись и низко опустив голову, и в свете монитора она увидела капельки пота у него на лбу. Сирена выла не преставая.
Между пальцами и на кольце Танкадо была кровь. У него закружилась голова. Увидев выгравированные знаки, Беккер страшно удивился. Он совсем забыл про кольцо на пальце, забыл, для чего приехал в Севилью. Он посмотрел на приближающуюся фигуру, затем перевел взгляд на кольцо. Из-за чего погибла Меган. Неужели ему предстояло погибнуть по той же причине.
Often a tsunami wave warns of its arrival with roaring and rumbling from the ocean, but sometimes a rising wall of water approaches silently and imperceptibly. A.Raffi R. 09.12.2020 at 05:10
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