File Name: traditional medicinal plants and malaria .zip
This chapter focuses on reviewing publications on medicinal plants used in the treatment of common diseases such as malaria, cholera, pneumonia, tuberculosis and asthma. Traditional medicine is still recognized as the preferred primary health care system in many rural communities, due to a number of reasons including affordability and effectiveness.
Augustine A. Box LG 55, Legon, Ghana. Traditional medicine is an important component of the health care system of most developing countries. However, indigenous knowledge about herbal medicines of many Ghanaian cultures has not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study was to document herbal medicines used by traditional healers to treat and manage human diseases and ailments by some communities living in Ghana.
The study was conducted in eight communities in southern Ghana. Data were collected from 45 healers using ethnobotanical questionnaire and voucher specimens were collected. A total of 52 species of plants belonging to 28 plant families were reportedly used for treatment and management of 42 diseases and ailments.
Medicinal plants were commonly harvested from the wild and degraded lowland areas in the morning from loamy soil. The results of the study show that herbal medicines are used for treatment and management of both common and specialized human diseases and that factors of place and time are considered important during harvesting of plants for treatments.
In Ghana, traditional medicine, particularly herbal medicines, is an important component of the health care system of the people [ 2 ]. The utilization of herbal medicines and associated medicinal plants in Ghana has been documented by many authors [e.
The use of herbal medicine in Ghana is widespread but highly diverse due to floristic and cultural diversity, and traditional medicine has huge impacts on the local economy and biodiversity conservation. The rich history of use of herbal medicines and innovative utilization of plants as sources of medicines in Ghana, and broadly within Africa, has been passed down through generations largely as oral tradition [ 6 ] and as such it is important that this knowledge be documented.
The WHO has a keen interest in documenting the use of medicinal plants by indigenous people from different parts of the world [ 7 ]. Documentation of indigenous knowledge about utilization of medicinal plants is important for a plethora of reasons.
Firstly, it ensures that indigenous culture heritage is preserved from being lost for the use of both present and future generations [ 8 ]. Studies have indicated that indigenous knowledge about herbal medicines is continuously being lost through factors such as acculturation and biodiversity losses.
For example, a comparative study of contemporary plant uses in Ghana shows that the materia medica of the Fanti, Ga, and Ashanti has changed considerably over time [ 6 ]. Secondly, through further research such as phytochemical, biochemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies information on indigenous herbal medicines can lead to discovery of new bioactive agents for treatment of ailments. Despite the recent interest in molecular modelling, combinatorial chemistry, and other synthetic chemistry techniques by pharmaceutical companies and funding organizations, natural products, and particularly medicinal plants, remain an important source of new drugs, new drug leads, and new chemical entities NCEs [ 9 , 10 ].
Thirdly, biodiversity conservation can be enhanced when information about plants that are harvested and utilized in the management of ailments within particular areas are available [ 3 ]. For biodiversity conservation, it is also important to know what quantities of plant materials are harvested, not only for home consumption but also for trade.
Commercial trade often stimulates extensive wild-collection, which often has negative effects on medicinal plant population sizes and recovery after harvesting.
On the other hand, the trade and marketing of herbal medicine creates employment for thousands of people, for example, in Ghana [ 11 ]. For these reasons, the harvest should be documented and sustainable so this can continue to be a profitable resource for future generations [ 12 ].
The aim of this study was to investigate herbal medicines commonly used for the treatment and management of human diseases and ailments by some communities living in southern Ghana.
To the best of our knowledge no specific previous ethnobotanical report on use of herbal medicines as yet exists for the studied communities. Here, we investigated aspects of the diversity and harvesting of medicinal plants as well as the modes of preparation and routes of administration of the herbal medicines. It is hoped that this baseline data will, in addition to preservation of indigenous knowledge, generate interest for studies regarding the harvesting patterns, bioactivity, and safety of the medicinal plants being used.
Specifically, our study addressed the following questions: 1 What are the most important species and families of plants being used? We further hypothesize that factors of place and time are considered important during harvesting of individual plants for treatments and management of human diseases by traditional healers.
Selection of the studied communities was based on preliminary surveys by the first author, which showed that traditional healers in the communities possess rich but undocumented traditional knowledge about use of herbal medicines.
The selection of the communities was also based on the perceived willingness of healers in the communities to cooperate with the objectives of our study. The Akuapim-North Municipality covers a land area of ca. The major vegetation type is semidecidous forest and the area is mountainous consisting of the Togo-Atakora hills. There are two raining seasons—a major rainfall between May and August and the minor rainfall in October.
The natives are the Akuapim people although other ethnic groups are common in the area. Christianity is the predominant religion in the area. The vegetation is semidecidous forest with patches of savanna woodland and dispersed secondary forests. The native people of the area are Krobo but there are people from other ethnic groups such as Ewes, Akans, and Hausas.
The present study was conducted following the guidelines of the Code of Ethics of the International Society of Ethnobiology [ 13 ]. A total of 80 healers from the study area were initially approached through peer recommendations. The purpose of the study including research objectives, methods of data collection, and intention to publish data were thoroughly explained to each individual healer that was approached. Subsequently, detailed interviews for purposes of data collection were carried out with only healers that agreed to participate in the study and have signed an individual written prior informed consent.
Data were collected from 45 traditional healers Table 1 through interviews using semistructured questionnaire with predetermined open-ended and direct questions [ 14 ]. The interviews were based on the plants being used, diseases and ailments treated, modes of preparation and administration of the herbal remedies, and factors of time and place that they consider as important when harvesting medicinal plants.
Healers were interviewed individually, and the interviews were mostly conducted in their homes and places where they collected plants for treatments. Plant specimens were collected with the healers interviewed in places where they normally collected plant materials for use, pressed, and processed following standard ethnobotanical practices [ 15 ].
Plant identification was achieved by matching local names with those in standard literature [ 16 ] following the work of [ 17 ] as well as by comparison of the voucher specimens collected with those in the Ghana Herbarium at Department of Plant and Environmental Biology, University of Ghana.
In total, 52 species of plants belonging to 28 plant families were documented Table 2. The use of members of the above families in herbal medicines is widely known in Ghana [ 3 ]. It is widely known that members of the families contain secondary metabolites such as tannins, phenolics, and alkaloids that are responsible for their bioactivity.
Two of the species of plants reported being used, namely, Pteridium aquilinum L. Kuhn and Pteridium esculentum Forst. Nakai, were ferns whereas the rest of the plants were vascular plants. There is very little information on the use of ferns in the Ghanaian traditional pharmacopeia [see, e.
Species most commonly reported being used were Aloe vera L. Other plant parts used were fruits, barks, and whole plants Figure 2 c. Leaves are commonly used in herbal medicines because they represent the site of most photosynthetic activity in plants and they also contain very high concentrations of secondary metabolites. The benefit of a high proportion of leaves being used is also that the threat posed to the populations of the plant community is minimal compared to harvesting of roots and barks.
Since the composition of secondary metabolites differs in plant organs [ 18 ], the use of different organs of the same plant in the herbal medicines might be to ensure extraction of the different bioactive agents. Herbal medicines were reportedly used for treatment and management of 42 diseases and ailments. The herbal medicines were used for treatment and management of both common ailments e. Medicinal plants are commonly used in the management of different ailments because they contain a variety of bioactive agents such as alkaloids and terpenoids [ 18 , 19 ].
It is possible to isolate the bioactive agents or compounds from extracts made from plants for detailed pharmacological and clinical investigations to be made. Nevertheless, in some cases isolation of bioactive agents has been unsuccessful even though the extracts are active. In the latter case, characterization of the active extract could enable structure-related activity studies leading to possible synthesis of a more potent drug to be developed.
Secondary forests are gaining more importance for medicinal plant collection as old-growth forests are becoming scarce and overexploited [ 23 , 24 ]. Our result is similar to that of [ 25 ], which indicated that healers favoured primary forest and wild habitats in terms of medicinal plant collection. According to [ 26 ] if a plant grows readily in the wild and produces a good yield of active constituents or takes several years to mature then collection from the wild is most practicable.
On the other hand, if plants that are harvested from wild vegetation are rare or have endemic status, overharvesting can be a particularly serious threat [ 27 ]. Healers did not explain why they avoided clayey soil and we did not find any scientific evidence that clayey soil plants do not produce pharmacologically active secondary metabolites. Soil physiochemical properties, particularly nutrient levels, affect growth and development of plants.
The levels of secondary metabolites in plant tissues vary with resource availability [ 28 ], and plant nutrient balance in soil is thought to influence production of secondary compounds at the level of metabolic regulation in plants [ 29 ]. Topography of an area affects rainfall, soil type, and amount of light reaching a plant and therefore indirectly also affects plant growth and development. Plants materials were harvested in the morning because of the importance of healthcare to healers as they collected plants first thing in the day.
According to the healers they collected plants any time of the day because they sometimes needed to treat emergency cases. There is scientific evidence to support the fact that yield of some plant chemical constituents differs within a time span of 24 hours due to the interconversions of compounds [ 19 ]. According to [ 30 ], time of the day should be given important consideration when collecting medicinal plants in order to obtain optimum yield of desired products.
Although it is documented that a variety of methods have been used for preparation of herbal medicines the methods of decoctions and infusions have been the widely reported [e.
However, differences exist in the preparations of decoctions and infusions both within healers and from place to place. In the study area, diversity existed among healers in the amount of menstruum mainly water , length of time of boiling, and how long the decoctions were kept. Generally, there were no standards in the methods of preparation of the herbal medicines by even the same healer and this lack of standardization is a major disadvantage of traditional medicine [ 26 , 31 ].
It also means that herbal medicines made by the same healer could vary in potency, which has implications in their use for treatment of patients.
The routes of administration of the remedies reported in this study were oral, rectal, topical, and nasal Table 1. The fact that oral route of administration of the herbals was most common was not a surprise as this has been previously reported [ 18 , 32 ]. However, a recent study in [ 33 ] found frequent use of herbal enemas rectal in Western African traditional medicine. The route of administration of herbal medicines could be related to bioactive agents in the extracts of the plants [ 32 ].
Only infusions were administered via the rectal and nasal routes. In this paper, we have documented the current state of knowledge and use of herbal medicines for treatment and management of human diseases among some communities living in southern Ghana.
This documentation contributes primary data to the wealth of data stored on the indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants from Ghana. The findings from the study suggest that healers are consulted for herbal medicines for the treatment and management of both common and specialized diseases and ailments.
The extent to which the people living in the area consult the healers is unknown but it is important to understanding this in order to determine the proper role of herbal medicine in the health care system of the people.
It is also essential to scientifically evaluate the specific uses of the medicinal plants reported in the current study using plant materials from the area through pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical studies in order to ensure the safety of the people consuming the medicines and for possible drug development.
The results of the study have also confirmed that factors of time and place are given considerations during harvesting of plant materials by healers. Further studies on the methods and quantities of plant materials that are harvested for treatment will improve our understanding on the impacts of harvesting of medicinal plants on biodiversity conservation in the area. Boadu conducted field work and identification of plants. Alex Asase conceived idea, designed study, and wrote manuscript.
Objective: To document the medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria by the Tetun ethnic people in West Timor—Indonesia. Methods: The ethnobotany and anthropology methods were used in the field surveys. Ninety four informants from 29 villages of 15 sub-districts in Belu and Malaka were interviewed since April to December Medicinal plants specimen were collected from the field and identified according to taxonomic methods. Results: Ninety six medicinal plants species belong to 41 families were found to be used by the Tetun ethnic people in their traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria.
It will take effective prevention, accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment to successfully eliminate malaria. But none of this will help if the causative agents become resistant to the drugs used for treatment. What is the place of medicinal plants in Africa generally and in Kenya more particularly? Most communities heavily rely on medicinal plants to prevent and treat diseases. Traditional healers prescribe medicinal plants to treat various illnesses. These plants are an accessible and affordable form of treatment for communities across the continent.
Augustine A. Box LG 55, Legon, Ghana. Traditional medicine is an important component of the health care system of most developing countries. However, indigenous knowledge about herbal medicines of many Ghanaian cultures has not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study was to document herbal medicines used by traditional healers to treat and manage human diseases and ailments by some communities living in Ghana. The study was conducted in eight communities in southern Ghana. Data were collected from 45 healers using ethnobotanical questionnaire and voucher specimens were collected.
A total of different plant species (from 71 families) used for traditional malaria treatment were identified in different parts of Ethiopia.
Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge TBK based on age groups and educational levels. Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species belonging to 31 families and 46 genera used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40
Metrics details. Ethiopia is endowed with abundant medicinal plant resources and traditional medicinal practices. However, available research evidence on indigenous anti-malarial plants is highly fragmented in the country.
The isolation of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants, based on traditional use or ethnomedical data, is a highly promising potential approach for identifying new and effective antimalarial drug candidates. In addition, this review aimed to show that there are several medicinal plants popularly used in these countries for which few scientific studies are available. The primary approach compared the antimalarial activity of native species used in each country with its extracts, fractions and isolated substances.
It has been estimated that — million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants.
In the race against time to find a cure for COVID, Madagascar began very early on a dual therapy protocol based on chloroquine and the antibiotic azithromycin, in association with treatments derived from traditional knowledge that emphasises the use of medicinal plants. Under presidential demands, and faced with the promises of chloroquine and the use of artemisia in China against the coronavirus, the Malagasy Institute of Applied Research IMRA and the National Pharmacology Research Centre joined forces to conduct studies and set up a research protocol on this plant already known for its virtues against malaria. This led to the development of Covid-Organics, an improved traditional remedy made up of artemisia and other endemic medicinal plants, such as ravintsara. Abundant on Malagasy soil, the artemisia annua has already been the subject of more than twenty studies in Madagascar where it was introduced in by Professor Albert Rakoto Ratsimamanga to fight against malaria.
Summary points. Over plant species from families are used to treat malaria and fever. On average, a fifth of patients use traditional herbal remedies for.
The world's poorest are the worst affected, and many treat themselves with traditional herbal medicines. These are often more available and affordable, and.Guillaume C. 10.12.2020 at 13:25
Two of the most effective drugs for malaria originated from traditional medicine: quinine from bark of the Peruvian Cinchona tree, and artemisinin from the.Astrid C. 10.12.2020 at 16:09
PDF | Traditional medicines have been used to treat malaria for thousands of years and are the source of the two main groups (artemisinin and.Rob W. 16.12.2020 at 06:20
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The locals use far more Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica, Psidium guajava,. Cassia occidentalis, Khaya senegalensis, Tamarindus indica, Citrus limonum.