islam and christianity similarities pdf Wednesday, December 23, 2020 7:25:14 PM

Islam And Christianity Similarities Pdf

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Tolerance and Tension: Islam and Christianity in Sub-Saharan Africa

Christianity and Islam are the two largest religions in the world and share a historical traditional connection, with some major theological differences.

The two faiths share a common place of origin in the Middle East , and consider themselves to be monotheistic. Christianity is an Abrahamic , monotheistic religion which developed out of Second Temple Judaism in the 1st century CE.

It is founded on the life, teachings, death , and resurrection of Jesus Christ , and those who follow it are called Christians. Islam is an Abrahamic , monotheistic religion that developed in the 7th century CE. Islam, which literally means "submission to God", was founded on the teachings of Muhammad as an expression of surrender to the will of God. Those who follow it are called Muslims which means "submitter to God".

Muslims have a range of views on Christianity, from viewing Christians to be People of the Book to regarding them as kafirs infidels that commit shirk polytheism because of Trinitarianism and as dhimmis religious taxpayers under Sharia. Christian views on Islam are diverse and range from considering Islam a fellow Abrahamic religion worshipping the same God , to believing Islam to be heresy or an apostatic cult that denies the Crucifixion and rejects the divinity of Christ.

Muslims believe Jesus Isa to be a messenger of God , not the son of God. Christianity and Islam have different scriptures , with Christianity using the Bible and Islam using the Quran , though Muslims believe that both the Quran and the Christian Gospel , termed Injeel , were sent by God. Both texts offer an account of the life and works of Jesus. The belief in Jesus is a fundamental part of Islamic theology , and Muslims view the Injeel as tahrif distorted or altered , while Christians consider their Gospels to be authoritative and the Quran to be a later, fabricated or apocryphal work.

Both religions believe in the virgin birth of Jesus through Mary , but the Biblical and Islamic accounts differ. The Old Testament dates to centuries before the time of Christ.

The New Testament dates from the time of Christ, or centuries thereafter. The central books of the Bible for Christians are the Gospels. Christians consider the Quran a non-divine false, later work. The Quran dates from the early 7th century, or decades thereafter.

The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Jewish and Christian scriptures. It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and differs in others. Christianity and Islam differ in their fundamental views in regard to the nature of their religion, their beliefs about the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God.

Christianity teaches that Jesus was condemned to death by the Sanhedrin and the Roman prefect Pontius Pilate , crucified and resurrected, as per the Gospel narratives. Christians believe Jesus was divine and sinless. Muslims and Christians both believe that Jesus was born to Mary , a virgin. They also both believe that Jesus is the Messiah. Islam teaches that Jesus was one of the most important prophets of God , but not the Son of God, not divine, and not part of a God as part of a Trinity.

In Islam, Jesus was a human prophet who, like the other prophets, tried to bring the children of Adam to the worship of the One God, termed Tawhid. Muslims believe the creation of Jesus was similar to the creation of Adam Adem. Muslims believe that Jesus was condemned to crucifixion and then miraculously saved from execution. Muslims contend that Jesus argued against the division of God's oneness. Christians do not see the Trinity as implying any division and that Christianity follows God's command to have no other gods from the Old Testament.

Muslims believe that the Quran was verbally revealed by God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel Jibril , [12] [13] gradually over a period of approximately 23 years, beginning on 22 December , [14] when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in , the year of his death. They consider the Quran to be the only revealed book that has been protected by God from distortion or corruption. Muslims revere Muhammad as the embodiment of the perfect believer and take his actions and sayings as a model of ideal conduct.

Unlike Jesus, who Christians believe was God's son, Muhammad was a mortal, albeit with extraordinary qualities. Today many Muslims believe that it is wrong to represent Muhammad, but this was not always the case. At various times and places pious Muslims represented Muhammad although they never worshiped these images.

The first recorded comment of a Christian reaction to Muhammad can be dated to only a few years after Muhammad's death. As stories of the Arab prophet spread to Christian Syria , an old man who was asked about the "prophet who has appeared with the Saracens " responded: "He is false, for the prophets do not come armed with a sword. The doctrine of the Trinity states that God is a single being who exists, simultaneously and eternally, as a communion of three distinct persons, the Father , the Son and the Holy Spirit.

In Islam such plurality in God is a denial of monotheism , and thus a sin of shirk , [22] which is considered to be a major 'al-Kaba'ir' sin. Christians and Muslims have differing views on the Holy Spirit. Christians believe that the Holy Spirit is God, and also the Paraclete referred to in the Gospel of John , who was manifested on the day of Pentecost. The Catechism of the Catholic Church , the official doctrine document released by the Roman Catholic Church , has this to say regarding Muslims:.

The Church's relationship with the Muslims. Protestant theology mostly emphasizes the necessity of faith in Jesus as a savior in order for salvation. Muslims may receive salvation in theologies relating to Universal reconciliation , but will not according to most Protestant theologies based on justification through faith :. He alone is the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world John , and God has laid on Him the iniquity of us all Isaiah All have sinned and are justified freely, without their own works and merits, by His grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, in His blood Romans This is necessary to believe.

This cannot be otherwise acquired or grasped by any work, law or merit. Therefore, it is clear and certain that this faith alone justifies us Nothing of this article can be yielded or surrendered, even though heaven and earth and everything else falls Mark The Quran explicitly promises salvation for all those righteous Christians who were there before the arrival of Muhammad:.

Those who believe in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad , and those who are Jews, and Christians, and Sabaeans — whoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right — surely their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. The Quran also makes it clear that the Christians will be nearest in love to those who follow the Quran and praises Christians for being humble and wise:.

We are Christians. That is because there are among them priests and monks and because they are not proud. When they listen to that which hath been revealed unto the messengers, thou seest their eyes overflow with tears because of their recognition of the Truth. They say: Our Lord, we believe.

Inscribe us as among the witnesses. How should we not believe in Allah and that which hath come unto us of the Truth. And how should we not hope that our Lord will bring us in along with righteous folk? Allah hath rewarded them for that their saying — Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the reward of the good. In John of Damascus sometimes St. John makes extensive reference to the Quran and, in St. Johns's opinion, its failure to live up to even the most basic scrutiny.

The work is not exclusively concerned with the Ismaelites a name for the Muslims as they claimed to have descended from Ismael but all heresy. The Fount of Knowledge references several suras directly often with apparent incredulity. From that time to the present a false prophet named Mohammed has appeared in their midst. This man, after having chanced upon the Old and New Testaments and likewise, it seems, having conversed with an Arian monk, devised his own heresy.

Then, having insinuated himself into the good graces of the people by a show of seeming piety, he gave out that a certain book had been sent down to him from heaven. He had set down some ridiculous compositions in this book of his and he gave it to them as an object of veneration. There are many other extraordinary and quite ridiculous things in this book which he boasts was sent down to him from God.

And which of the prophets foretold that such a prophet would rise up? And we remark that Moses received the Law on Mount Sinai , with God appearing in the sight of all the people in cloud, and fire, and darkness, and storm.

And we say that all the Prophets from Moses on down foretold the coming of Christ and how Christ God and incarnate Son of God was to come and to be crucified and die and rise again, and how He was to be the judge of the living and dead. And how is it that God did not in your presence present this man with the book to which you refer, even as He gave the Law to Moses, with the people looking on and the mountain smoking, so that you, too, might have certainty?

Theophanes the Confessor died c. Theophanes reports about Muhammad thus:. At the beginning of his advent the misguided Jews thought he was the Messiah. But when they saw him eating camel meat, they realized that he was not the one they thought him to be, Whenever he came to Palestine he consorted with Jews and Christians and sought from them certain scriptural matters. He was also afflicted with epilepsy.

When his wife became aware of this, she was greatly distressed, inasmuch as she, a noblewoman, had married a man such as he, who was not only poor, but also an epileptic.

Goddard sums up Nicetas' view:. In short, Muhammad was an ignorant charlatan who succeeded by imposture in seducing the ignorant barbarian Arabs into accepting a gross, blaspheming, idolatrous, demoniac religion, which is full of futile errors, intellectual enormities, doctrinal errors and moral aberrations.

Goddard further argues that Nicetas demonstrates in his work a knowledge of the entire Quran, including an extensive knowledge of Suras Nicetas account from behind the Byzantine frontier apparently set a strong precedent for later writing both in tone and points of argument. The author s of the 11th century Song of Roland evidently had little actual knowledge of Islam. As depicted in this epic poem, Muslims erect statues of Mohammed and worship them, and Mohammed is part of an "Unholy Trinity" together with the Classical Greek Apollyon and Termagant , a completely fictional deity made up by Christians in the Middle Ages.

This view, evidently confusing Islam with the pre-Christian Graeco-Roman Religion, appears to reflect misconceptions prevalent in Western Christian society at the time. In Dante Alighieri 's Divine Comedy , Muhammad is in the ninth ditch of Malebolge , the eighth realm, designed for those who have caused schism; specifically, he was placed among the Sowers of Religious Discord. Muhammad is portrayed as split in half, with his entrails hanging out, representing his status as a heresiarch Canto This scene is frequently shown in illustrations of the Divine Comedy.

The question of Islam was not on the agenda when Nostra aetate was first drafted, or even at the opening of the Second Vatican Council.

Islam and Christianity

Analyzing religion isn't just for the pious anymore. Since the World Trade Center towers were blown away in the name of God four years ago, since the journalist Daniel Pearl and numberless others have been murdered by men and women who seem to believe that heaven will reward their actions, Americans have been forced to acknowledge that religious differences kill, even or maybe especially in the 21st century. Some people believe that basic tolerance of others' religions is the answer. Sam Harris, the author of the current best seller "The End of Faith" Norton , recommends abolishing all forms of religion. It sets out to prove that the three world faiths involved in current global conflicts are really one big religion.

Looking for Similarities Where Others See Differences

About Follow Donate. Demographic Study. In little more than a century, the religious landscape of sub-Saharan Africa has changed dramatically. As of , both Muslims and Christians were relatively small minorities in the region. The vast majority of people practiced traditional African religions, while adherents of Christianity and Islam combined made up less than a quarter of the population, according to historical estimates from the World Religion Database.

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In light of the widespread public perception of incompatibility between Islam and Christianity, this book provides a much-needed straightforward comparison of these two great faith traditions from a broad theological perspective. Award-winning scholar John Renard illuminates the similarities as well as the differences between Islam and Christianity through a clear exploration of four major dimensions—historical, creedal, institutional, and ethical and spiritual. Throughout, the book features comparisons between concrete elements such as creedal statements, prayer texts, and writings from major theologians and mystics. It also includes a glossary of technical theological terms.

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Но честно говоря, она в это уже почти не верила. - Пусть ТРАНСТЕКСТ работает, - принял решение Стратмор.  - Я хочу быть абсолютно уверен, что это абсолютно стойкий шифр. Чатрукьян продолжал колотить по стеклу. - Ничего не поделаешь, - вздохнул Стратмор.  - Поддержи. Коммандер глубоко вздохнул и подошел к раздвижной стеклянной двери.

 Пройдемте с нами, пожалуйста. Сюда. В этой встрече было что-то нереальное - нечто, заставившее снова напрячься все его нервные клетки. Он поймал себя на том, что непроизвольно пятится от незнакомцев. Тот, что был пониже ростом, смерил его холодным взглядом. - Сюда, мистер Беккер.

Looking for Similarities Where Others See Differences

В эпоху цифровой связи понятие неприкосновенности частной жизни ушло в прошлое. Записывается. Телефонные компании могут сообщить, кто вам звонил и как долго вы говорили. - Сделайте это, - приказал.  - И тут же доложите .

The Concept of Revelation in Judaism, Christianity and Islam

Голоса показались ему знакомыми. Он толкнул дверь. Комната оказалась пуста.

Когда он бывал раздражен, а это было почти всегда, его черные глаза горели как угли. Он поднялся по служебной лестнице до высшего поста в агентстве потому, что работал не покладая рук, но также и благодаря редкой целеустремленности и заслуженному уважению со стороны своих предшественников. Он был первым афроамериканцем на посту директора Агентства национальной безопасности, но эту его отличительную черту никто никогда даже не упоминал, потому что политическая партия, которую он поддерживал, решительно не принимала этого во внимание, и его коллеги следовали этому примеру. Фонтейн заставил Мидж и Бринкерхоффа стоять, пока сам он молча совершал свой обычный ритуал заваривания кофе сорта Гватемальская ява. Затем он сел за письменный стол и начал их допрашивать, как школьников, вызванных в кабинет директора, а они по-прежнему стояли.


Betiana G. 24.12.2020 at 08:32

5. Pre-Islamic Religious Setting. (7th Century). Christians: •Venerated Jesus and Mary. •Rejected “3 gods,” divinity of. Jesus, crucifixion.

Amabella L. 26.12.2020 at 02:42

PDF | Theory and measurement of attachment to God have largely been developed from a western Christian perspective. However, the.