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Internal And External Parts Of Computer Pdf

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A computer case , also known as a computer chassis , tower , system unit , or cabinet , is the enclosure that contains most of the components of a personal computer usually excluding the display, keyboard , and mouse. Cases are usually constructed from steel often SECC —steel, electrogalvanized, cold-rolled, coil , aluminium and plastic. Other materials such as glass , wood , acrylic and even Lego bricks have appeared in home-built cases.

Cases can come in many different sizes known as form factors. The size and shape of a computer case are usually determined by the form factor of the motherboard since it is the largest component of most computers. Consequently, personal computer form factors typically specify only the internal dimensions and layout of the case. Form factors for rack-mounted and blade servers may include precise external dimensions as well since these cases must themselves fit in specific enclosures.

Full-size tower cases are typically larger in volume than desktop cases, with more room for drive bays , expansion slots , and custom or all-in-one AIO water cooling solutions. Currently, the most popular form factor for desktop computers is ATX, [ citation needed ] although microATX and small form factors have also become very popular for a variety of uses.

In the high-end segment, the unofficial and loosely defined XL-ATX specification appeared around It extends the length of the mainboard to accommodate four graphics cards with dual-slot coolers. While the market share of these exotic high-end mainboards is very low, almost all high-end cases and many mainstream cases support XL-ATX 10 expansion slots. This allows customers to build a fully-fledged high-end computer in a significantly smaller case.

Apple Inc. Tower cases are often categorized as mini-tower, midi-tower, mid-tower, or full-tower. The terms are subjective and inconsistently defined by different manufacturers. They can have anywhere from six to ten externally accessible drive bays. However as computing technology moves from floppy disks and CD-ROMs to large capacity hard drives, USB flash drives , and network-based solutions, today's full tower cases typically have only no, one, or two external bays for CD drives, with the internal bays moved elsewhere in the case to improve airflow.

The full tower case was developed to house file servers which would typically be tasked with serving data from expensive CD-ROM databases that held more data than the hard drives commonly available. Hence many full tower cases include locking doors and other physical security features to prevent theft of the discs. Today, full tower cases are commonly used by enthusiasts as showpiece display cases with custom water cooling, lighting, and tempered glass replacing acrylic.

They may also hold two computers. A mini-tower case will typically have only one or two external bays. Recently the marketing term midi-tower has come into use, seemingly referring to based on anecdotal evidence cases smaller than mid-tower but larger than mini-tower, typically with two to three external bays.

Outside of the United States, the term is often used interchangeably with mid-tower. Computer cases usually include sheet metal enclosures for a power supply unit and drive bays , as well as a rear panel that can accommodate peripheral connectors protruding from the motherboard and expansion slots.

Most cases also have a power button or switch, a reset button , and LEDs to indicate power, hard drive activity, and network activity in some models. Such a case will also normally include the wires needed to connect these ports, switches, and indicators to the motherboard.

Accessing the interior components of a modern ATX tower case is done by removing the side panels. Looking front-to-back, accessing the motherboard, PSU, drive bays, and most case fan installation points are done by removing the left side panel.

Removing the right-side panel is done less often to access the space behind the motherboard mounting plate. This space is devoted to cable management, as cables routed in front of the motherboard may disrupt the flow of air within the case causing increased temperatures. Some upside-down designed ATX cases are also accessed by removing the right-side panel door.

Alternatively, the case may have a single large U-shaped cover that saddles the chassis. This was ubiquitous in AT tower cases. To prevent the buildup of performance-degrading dust within the case, many models feature dust filters in front of the air intake fans.

While the exact method of accessing the front filters depends on the case model, it usually requires the removal of the entire front panel.

Removal of the front panel itself may or may not require the removal of one or both of the side panels. If there is any doubt, consult the user's manual if possible. Traditionally, most computer cases required computer case screws to hold components and panels in place i.

From the s there is a trend towards tool-less cases, in which components are held together with snap-in plastic rails, thumbscrews, and other methods that do not require tools; this facilitates quick assembly and modification of computer hardware and is also cheaper to manufacture.

Through the s, most computer cases had simple rectangular shapes, and were often painted beige or white with little attention given to the visual design. Beige box designs are still found on a large number of budget computers assembled from generic components. This class of machines is still known as white box computers. Case modding is the artistic styling of computer cases, often to draw attention to the use of advanced or unusual components. Since the early s, some cases have included clear side panels or acrylic windows so that users can look inside while it is operating.

Modded cases may also include colored internal lighting, custom paint, or liquid cooling systems. Some hobbyists build custom cases from raw materials like aluminum, steel, styrofoam , acrylic, or wood. To improve airflow while allowing RGB fans to be visible, many cases as of use metal meshes, without any external bays. Some used to include holes to support external water cooling radiators.

Some computer cases include a biased switch push-button which connects to the motherboard. When the case is opened, the switch position changes, and the system records this change. The system's firmware or BIOS may be configured to report this event the next time it is powered on. This physical intrusion detection system may help computer owners detect tampering with their computers.

However, most such systems are quite simple in construction; a knowledgeable intruder can open the case or modify its contents without triggering the switch. In the past, many tower cases intended to house file servers featured a locking door covering the external drive bays.

This was a security feature intended to prevent the theft of the CD-ROM discs the drives would be holding. At the time, CD-ROM capacity was larger than the hard disks available, and many business-critical databases were distributed on this media.

These databases were often very expensive or held proprietary data, and hence would be likely targets for casual theft. Enthusiast case featuring translucent panel casemod. Three of the Wikimedia servers in 1U rackmount cases.

The Mac Mini from Apple. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Enclosure that contains most of the components of a computer. Further information: Comparison of computer form factors.

Further information: Case modding. Mac Pro tower case. Note the two barely visible front intake fans. IBM Personal Computer. January 27, Retrieved September 28, At all? Basic computer components. Categories : Computer enclosure. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August All accuracy disputes Articles with disputed statements from November Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons.

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A computer case , also known as a computer chassis , tower , system unit , or cabinet , is the enclosure that contains most of the components of a personal computer usually excluding the display, keyboard , and mouse. Cases are usually constructed from steel often SECC —steel, electrogalvanized, cold-rolled, coil , aluminium and plastic. Other materials such as glass , wood , acrylic and even Lego bricks have appeared in home-built cases. Cases can come in many different sizes known as form factors. The size and shape of a computer case are usually determined by the form factor of the motherboard since it is the largest component of most computers. Consequently, personal computer form factors typically specify only the internal dimensions and layout of the case.

The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory. The brain controls our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, and the function of many organs within our body. The central nervous system CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord.

The motherboard is a printed circuit board that houses most, if not all of the internal components. These include the Central Processor and the Memory cards as well as sound cards, graphics cards, video cards, any ports such as USB 2. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.


Disk Drive-Allows a computer to play CD's or DVD's. Cables-The cables connect every electronic device together to connect the circuit and allow everything to work. Heat sink- Necessary to have a CPU cooler. Modem-Connects hardware and signal.


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Hardware refers to the physical elements of a computer. This is also sometime called the machinery or the equipment of the computer. Examples of hardware in a computer are the keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and the central processing unit. However, most of a computer's hardware cannot be seen; in other words, it is not an external element of the computer, but rather an internal one, surrounded by the computer's casing tower.

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DRAM Modules Computer memory is generally classified as either internal or external memory. Internal memory, also called "main or primary memory" refers to memory that stores small amounts of data that can be accessed quickly while the computer is running.

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Internal Hardware. External Hardware. Computer Technology Timeline 2. Search this site. External and Internal Computer Components. Motherboard-Contains all of the connections that allow the carious other subsystems to interact. Central Processing unit CPU -The components that performs all calculations and mathematical manipulations in a computer.

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Secondary storage is discussed further in the Hardware topic. Part A. Processor. The processor, sometimes referred to as the CPU (central processing unit), is the part of the computer that processes data by executing the instructions of stored programs. Part B. Main memory. Part D. Input/output (I/O) controllers.


Internal and External Hardware Components in a Computer

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