File Name: iron and steel production process .zip
The blast furnace is the first step in producing steel from iron oxides.
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In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen , silicon , phosphorus , sulfur and excess carbon most important impurity are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese , nickel , chromium , carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Limiting dissolved gases such as nitrogen and oxygen and entrained impurities termed "inclusions" in the steel is also important to ensure the quality of the products cast from the liquid steel. Steelmaking has existed for millennia, but it was not commercialized on a massive scale until the late 14th century. An ancient process of steelmaking was the crucible process. In the s and s, the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process turned steelmaking into a heavy industry. Today there are two major commercial processes for making steel, namely basic oxygen steelmaking , which has liquid pig-iron from the blast furnace and scrap steel as the main feed materials, and electric arc furnace EAF steelmaking, which uses scrap steel or direct reduced iron DRI as the main feed materials.
Achieving this reduction and maintaining it after will not be easy. Energy efficiency improvements spurred much of the reduction in recent years, returning CO2 intensity to previous levels, but opportunities for further efficiency improvements will likely soon be exhausted. Thus, innovation in the upcoming decade will be crucial to commercialise new low-emissions process routes, including those integrating CCUS and hydrogen, to realise the long-term transformational change required. While the energy intensity of steel has gradually fallen since , expanding production from to raised total energy demand and CO 2 emissions. After a small decline between and , energy demand and CO 2 emissions increased in and , primarily as a result of higher steel production.
Skip to content. All Homes Search Contact. At high temperatures, oxygen is blown through the metal, which reduces the carbon content to between This is a brief history of iron and steel production from its earliest origins through the 20th century, with a special focus on the career of Andrew Carnegie and on the economic impact of cheap and abundant steel. The industry produced 29 million metric tons of pig iron and 88 million tons of steel.
The improved plant performance gives rise to the higher quality improvement and lower cost, and simultaneously environmental friendly plant operation. The control systems and field instruments are working at the various processes of the iron and steel plant. The process of iron and steel plant is starting from Sinter plant, Coke oven etc, and the blast furnace, iron pre-treatment are following. Under such circumstances efficient operation is achieved by such measures as increasing the calorie value of fuel gas and recovering waste heat from gas. To further improve combustion efficiency and save energy, measurement of the oxygen concentration in exhaust gases is required. The measurement of oxygen concentration in the furnace is essential.
important steelmaking process routes via the sinter/pellet plant/coke oven/blast furnace/basic oxygen converter and the electric arc furnace.
Steel production is a hour-a-day, day-a-year process, dependent on a consistent supply of raw materials and huge amounts of energy. High demand for iron ore, coke and scrap steel, increasing energy costs, and industry consolidation have prompted steel producers to develop new methods for gaining efficiency to remain competitive. The production methods using raw materials have improved significantly over the past decade, and scrap-based production is accounting for a larger portion of the total steel supply. Steel is made primarily in a two-step process. Secondary steelmaking is a refining process in which alloying metals are added and impurities are removed.
Various chemical reactions are initiated, either in sequence or simultaneously, in order to arrive at specified chemical compositions and temperatures. Indeed, many of the reactions interfere with one another, requiring the use of process models to help in analyzing options, optimizing competing reactions, and designing efficient commercial practices. The major iron-bearing raw materials for steelmaking are blast-furnace iron , steel scrap, and direct-reduced iron DRI.
Download: Safety and health in the iron and steel industry pdf - 0. The first two chapters deal with the objectives and application of the code. The next two chapters address, within a national framework, the responsibilities, duties and rights of the competent authority, the labour inspectorate, employers, workers and their organizations, suppliers, manufacturers and designers, and contractors, and occupational safety and health OSH management systems and services and OSH reporting. Part II of the code addresses different operations commonly used in the production of iron and steel — from coke ovens to steel furnaces and foundries, to rolling mills, coating lines and recycling. It also covers transport, competence and training, personal protective equipment, emergency preparedness, and special protection and hygiene issues.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron , but also others such as lead or copper. Blast refers to the combustion air being "forced" or supplied above atmospheric pressure. In a blast furnace, fuel coke , ores , and flux limestone are continuously supplied through the top of the furnace, while a hot blast of air sometimes with oxygen enrichment is blown into the lower section of the furnace through a series of pipes called tuyeres , so that the chemical reactions take place throughout the furnace as the material falls downward. The end products are usually molten metal and slag phases tapped from the bottom, and waste gases flue gas exiting from the top of the furnace. The downward flow of the ore along with the flux in contact with an upflow of hot, carbon monoxide-rich combustion gases is a countercurrent exchange and chemical reaction process. In contrast, air furnaces such as reverberatory furnaces are naturally aspirated, usually by the convection of hot gases in a chimney flue. According to this broad definition, bloomeries for iron, blowing houses for tin , and smelt mills for lead would be classified as blast furnaces.
Iron is most widely found in the crust of the earth, in the form of various minerals oxides, hydrated ores, carbonates, sulphides, silicates and so on. Since prehistoric times, humans have learned to prepare and process these minerals by various washing, crushing and screening operations, by separating the gangue, calcining, sintering and pelletizing, in order to render the ores smeltable and to obtain iron and steel. In historic times, a prosperous iron industry developed in many countries, based on local supplies of ore and the proximity of forests to supply the charcoal for fuel. Early in the 18th century, the discovery that coke could be used in place of charcoal revolutionized the industry, making possible its rapid development as the base on which all other developments of the Industrial Revolution rested.
Сердце Беккера подпрыгнуло. - Очень хорошенькие? - повторил он с нарочитым немецким акцентом. - Рыженькие. - Да, а как зовут вашего брата.
Мидж повернулась к нему на своем стуле. - Это не смешно, Чед. Заместитель директора только что солгал директорской канцелярии.
Что же я делаю. - подумал Бринкерхофф. Мидж подошла к принтеру и, забрав распечатку очередности задач, попыталась просмотреть ее в темноте.
Стратмор кивнул. Сейф Бигглмана представляет собой гипотетический сценарий, когда создатель сейфа прячет внутри его ключ, способный его открыть.