File Name: parts of car engine and its function .zip
Automobile engines are complicated mechanisms that are made up of several internal parts that work like clockwork to produce that power that moves your vehicle. In order for the engine to operate properly it needs all of its parts to be in good condition. One fault can be disastrous!
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. The internal combustion engine is perhaps the most common example of a heat engine, in which heat from the combustion of a fuel causes rapid pressurisation of the gaseous combustion products in the combustion chamber, causing them to expand and drive a piston , which turns a crankshaft.
Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air , and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors , like myosins in muscles , use chemical energy to create forces and ultimately motion. The word engine derives from Old French engin , from the Latin ingenium —the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults , trebuchets and battering rams , were called siege engines , and knowledge of how to construct them was often treated as a military secret.
The word gin , as in cotton gin , is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example.
However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery , were not mechanical engines but pumps. In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was merely a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses.
In modern usage, the term engine typically describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force usually in the form of thrust.
Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines. Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets. When the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was initially used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers.
The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. A heat engine may also serve as a prime mover —a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy.
Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, and then converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure derived directly from the explosive force of combustion or other chemical reaction, or secondarily from the action of some such force on other substances such as air, water, or steam. Simple machines , such as the club and oar examples of the lever , are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power , animal power , water power , wind power and even steam power date back to antiquity.
Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan , windlass or treadmill , and with ropes , pulleys , and block and tackle arrangements; this power was transmitted usually with the forces multiplied and the speed reduced. These were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece , as well as in mines , water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius , Frontinus and Pliny the Elder , treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills , driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo , a water-powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC.
Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries. Some were quite complex, with aqueducts , dams , and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears , or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events.
In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine , often these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In , al-Jazari employed a crank - conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din  in and by Giovanni Branca  in In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China.
Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe. The Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum. Improving on the design of the Newcomen steam engine , the Watt steam engine, developed sporadically from to , was a great step in the development of the steam engine.
Offering a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency , James Watt 's design became synonymous with steam engines, due in no small part to his business partner, Matthew Boulton. It enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where waterpower was not available. Later development led to steam locomotives and great expansion of railway transportation.
They were theoretically advanced by Carnot in The invention of an internal combustion engine which was later commercially successful was made during by Etienne Lenoir. In the Otto cycle was capable of giving a far higher power to weight ratio than steam engines and worked much better for many transportation applications such as cars and aircraft.
The first commercially successful automobile, created by Karl Benz , added to the interest in light and powerful engines. The lightweight gasoline internal combustion engine, operating on a four-stroke Otto cycle, has been the most successful for light automobiles, while the more efficient Diesel engine is used for trucks and buses. However, in recent years, turbo Diesel engines have become increasingly popular, especially outside of the United States, even for quite small cars.
In , Karl Benz was granted a patent for his design of the first engine with horizontally opposed pistons. His design created an engine in which the corresponding pistons move in horizontal cylinders and reach top dead center simultaneously, thus automatically balancing each other with respect to their individual momentum.
Engines of this design are often referred to as flat engines because of their shape and lower profile. Continuance of the use of the internal combustion engine for automobiles is partly due to the improvement of engine control systems onboard computers providing engine management processes, and electronically controlled fuel injection.
Forced air induction by turbocharging and supercharging have increased power outputs and engine efficiencies. Similar changes have been applied to smaller diesel engines giving them almost the same power characteristics as gasoline engines.
This is especially evident with the popularity of smaller diesel engine propelled cars in Europe. Larger diesel engines are still often used in trucks and heavy machinery, although they require special machining not available in most factories.
Diesel engines produce lower hydrocarbon and CO 2 emissions, but greater particulate and NO x pollution, than gasoline engines. In the first half of the 20th century, a trend of increasing engine power occurred, particularly in the U. S models. The higher forces and pressures created by these changes created engine vibration and size problems that led to stiffer, more compact engines with V and opposed cylinder layouts replacing longer straight-line arrangements.
The design principles favoured in Europe, because of economic and other restraints such as smaller and twistier roads, leant toward smaller cars and corresponding to the design principles that concentrated on increasing the combustion efficiency of smaller engines.
Earlier automobile engine development produced a much larger range of engines than is in common use today. Engines have ranged from 1- to cylinder designs with corresponding differences in overall size, weight, engine displacement , and cylinder bores.
Several three-cylinder, two-stroke-cycle models were built while most engines had straight or in-line cylinders. There were several V-type models and horizontally opposed two- and four-cylinder makes too. Overhead camshafts were frequently employed. The smaller engines were commonly air-cooled and located at the rear of the vehicle; compression ratios were relatively low. The s and s saw an increased interest in improved fuel economy , which caused a return to smaller V-6 and four-cylinder layouts, with as many as five valves per cylinder to improve efficiency.
The Bugatti Veyron An engine can be put into a category according to two criteria: the form of energy it accepts in order to create motion, and the type of motion it outputs. Combustion engines are heat engines driven by the heat of a combustion process. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel generally, fossil fuel occurs with an oxidizer usually air in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high temperature and high pressure gases, which are produced by the combustion, directly applies force to components of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades or a nozzle , and by moving it over a distance, generates mechanical work.
An external combustion engine EC engine is a heat engine where an internal working fluid is heated by combustion of an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine produces motion and usable work. Engines of similar or even identical configuration and operation may use a supply of heat from other sources such as nuclear, solar, geothermal or exothermic reactions not involving combustion; but are not then strictly classed as external combustion engines, but as external thermal engines.
The working fluid can be a gas as in a Stirling engine , or steam as in a steam engine or an organic liquid such as n-pentane in an Organic Rankine cycle.
The fluid can be of any composition; gas is by far the most common, although even single-phase liquid is sometimes used. In the case of the steam engine, the fluid changes phases between liquid and gas. Air-breathing combustion engines are combustion engines that use the oxygen in atmospheric air to oxidise 'burn' the fuel, rather than carrying an oxidiser , as in a rocket.
Theoretically, this should result in a better specific impulse than for rocket engines. A continuous stream of air flows through the air-breathing engine. This air is compressed, mixed with fuel, ignited and expelled as the exhaust gas. The operation of engines typically has a negative impact upon air quality and ambient sound levels. There has been a growing emphasis on the pollution producing features of automotive power systems.
This has created new interest in alternate power sources and internal-combustion engine refinements. Though a few limited-production battery-powered electric vehicles have appeared, they have not proved competitive owing to costs and operating characteristics. However, the gasoline engine and the Diesel engine, with their new emission-control devices to improve emission performance, have not yet been significantly challenged.
Catalytic converters can reduce toxic emissions, but not completely eliminate them. Also, resulting greenhouse gas emissions, chiefly carbon dioxide , from the widespread use of engines in the modern industrialized world is contributing to the global greenhouse effect — a primary concern regarding global warming. Some engines convert heat from noncombustive processes into mechanical work, for example a nuclear power plant uses the heat from the nuclear reaction to produce steam and drive a steam engine, or a gas turbine in a rocket engine may be driven by decomposing hydrogen peroxide.
Apart from the different energy source, the engine is often engineered much the same as an internal or external combustion engine. Another group of noncombustive engines includes thermoacoustic heat engines sometimes called "TA engines" which are thermoacoustic devices that use high-amplitude sound waves to pump heat from one place to another, or conversely use a heat difference to induce high-amplitude sound waves.
In general, thermoacoustic engines can be divided into standing wave and travelling wave devices. Stirling engines can be another form of non-combustive heat engine. They use the Stirling thermodynamic cycle to convert heat into work. The gas receives heat at the hot cylinder and expands, driving the piston that turns the crankshaft. After expanding and flowing through the recuperator, the gas rejects heat at the cold cylinder and the ensuing pressure drop leads to its compression by the other displacement piston, which forces it back to the hot cylinder.
Non-thermal motors usually are powered by a chemical reaction, but are not heat engines.
Hybrid electric vehicles are powered by an internal combustion engine and an electric motor, which uses energy stored in batteries. A hybrid electric vehicle cannot be plugged in to charge the battery. Instead, the battery is charged through regenerative braking and by the internal combustion engine. The extra power provided by the electric motor can potentially allow for a smaller engine. The battery can also power auxiliary loads and reduce engine idling when stopped.
Mekonnen Asmare Fentahun 1 , Prof. Need for higher fuel efficiency, weight minimization, environmental regulations and policies as well as customer demand forces the auto maker companies to focus on developing new materials and re designing of the existing one and selecting materials reasonably. All material industries plastics and polymer composites, as well as steel, aluminum, and magnesium, are operating to respond to the automotive industry changing needs. For decades, advanced plastics and polymer composites have helped the improvement of appearance, functionality, and safety of automobiles while reducing vehicle weight and delivering superior value to customers at the same time. Various materials are used to make cars. The main materials used for making cars, parts and components, along with future trends, are steel, aluminum, magnesium, copper, plastics and carbon fibers.
The functions of the chassis includes. (i) carrying the weight of the vehicle and its passengers,. (ii) withstanding the engine and transmission.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. The internal combustion engine is perhaps the most common example of a heat engine, in which heat from the combustion of a fuel causes rapid pressurisation of the gaseous combustion products in the combustion chamber, causing them to expand and drive a piston , which turns a crankshaft. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air , and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy.
The engine is the heart of your car. It is a complex machine built to convert heat from burning gas into the force that turns the road wheels. The chain of reactions which achieve that objective is set in motion by a spark , which ignites a mixture of petrol vapour and compressed air inside a momentarily sealed cylinder and causes it to burn rapidly. That is why the machine is called an internal combustion engine. As the mixture burns it expands, providing power to drive the car. To withstand its heavy workload, the engine must be a robust structure. It consists of two basic parts: the lower, heavier section is the cylinder block, a casing for the engine's main moving parts; the detachable upper cover is the cylinder head.
In this post, we will discuss the engine parts. The engine has two types one is the internal combustion engine and another one is the external combustion engine. The engine most essential part of automobile industries or we can say that the engine is the heart of an automobile. The function and construction of each engine parts of an internal combustion engine are explained.
Skip to main content. Search form Search. Ship main engine parts and functions pdf. Ship main engine parts and functions pdf ship main engine parts and functions pdf Air compressors. The air strating valves are held closed by springs when not in use and opened by the pilot air enabling the compressed air from the recievers to enter directly the engine cylinders.
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Последний щит начал рушиться.
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Откуда-то донеслись звуки песнопения. В задней части церкви между скамьями продвигался человек, стараясь держаться в тени. Ему удалось проскользнуть внутрь в последнюю секунду перед тем, как дверь закрылась. Человек улыбнулся: охота становилась интересной.
Have you ever wondered how fascinating a car is?Yolande B. 10.12.2020 at 17:57
Just like humans in order to move, your engine requires energy.Eladia T. 17.12.2020 at 09:37
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