File Name: thesis on market chain analysis of teff and wheat prodaction .zip
The global dominance of the three crops, maize, wheat, and rice in the current food system has raised an alarm. Heavy dependence on these crops can limit our capacity to deal with food shortage and dietary imbalance. Teff Eragrostis tef , a warm-season annual cereal, is one of the underutilized crops that can contribute to food security and crop diversification.
Teff accounts for the largest share of the cultivated area and the major cash crops grown mainly for market in the study area. Out of the total grain crop area in the country, Cereals teff is the first In Ethiopia area coverage and production. The scientific name of teff is Eragrostis teff Zucc.
Teff accounts for the largest share of the cultivated area and the major cash crops grown mainly for market in the study area. Out of the total grain crop area in the country, Cereals teff is the first In Ethiopia area coverage and production. The scientific name of teff is Eragrostis teff Zucc. Vavilov, In oromia regional state, the land allocated for the production of teff in the year was 1,, Moreover, the regional production of teff in the year was 24,, The National teff Strategy has been prepared following a value chain approach, which includes coordination of all steps in the chain, adding value at each stage, and a marketing approach to address local, national, and international consumer demand .
Ethiopian agriculture sector continues to face a number of problems and challenges until now. The major ones are absence of well-functioning markets and adverse climatic conditions need mention . According to Efa, et al. Some research conducted on marketing participation of smallholder farmers in different teff producing areas.
Mohammad and Azeb  conducted a study on market chain of teff, wheat and analyses of the teff market participation of farm households respectively.
This study therefore, has attempted to contribute in filling the information gap by identifying factors affecting teff market supply and market choice outlet of farmers in Tole woreda.
Description of the study area: Tole Woreda is located in South west from capital city Addis Ababa and East from the administrative town, Woliso. Bantu is the Worde administrative town since and it is located at 85 km to the south west of Addis Ababa and 80 km to the East from the zonal administrative town Woliso.
The woreda has 24 kebeles 22 rural and 2 urban kebeles. It is bordered on the southwest by Kokir, on the west by Bacho, on the northwest by Elu, on the northeast by the Awash River which separates it from Sebeta hawas, and on the east and south by Kersana Kondaltiti. The Population projection values of population census report, the total population of Tole woreda is 80,, of whom 40, were men and 39, were women, 4, of its population were urban dwellers.
It experiences average temperature between 18 0 c and 20 0 c and annual rainfall varies between and mm. Climate: Tole woreda has good climatic conditions and this is an opportunity for cereal crops. It experiences average temperature between 18 and 20 0 C annual rainfall varies between and mm the main rainfall starts in June and ends in September. Land use: Tole Woreda has various land use types that could be classified into arable land, irrigated land, grazing land, common land, land covered by water, land used for social service and forest land.
The woreda has a total area of 41, ha of which 28, The farming system is characterized by mixed crop-livestock farming.
Farmers produce different crop enterprises in the rain-fed farming in order to secure their family food supply and also cover various household expenses. The major crops grown in the woreda include teff , wheat, barley, rough pea and maize. Qualitative and quantitative data were estimated to get the overall picture of teff producers and traders in the study area.
Primary and secondary sources of data were used. Primary data sources were smallholder farmers randomly selected from different rural kebeles, and traders at different levels ranging from farmer traders to regional level wholesales. The source of secondary data list of different and relevant published and unpublished reports as well as bulletins from CSA.
Sampling techniques: In this study a multi stage sampling procedure was used to select the rural kebeles and sample households. Tole woreda was purposively selected based on its potential production of teff from the SW Shewa zone.
In the first stage, Tole woreda kebeles were stratified into producer and non-producer of teff. Since three kebeles were town kebeles they are not produce teff and three kebeles were found in Dega agro climate almost all of them participated in producing barley and inset rather than teff. Totally Out of the 24 kebeles in Tole woreda and 5 kebeles did not produce teff whereas 19 kebeles were teff producer. In the second stage 19 teff producer kebele is purposively selected.
From these teff producing kebeles 4 kebele were selected randomly. Since the population and area of production were homogeneous to producer the selected kebele was almost representative to the woreda. In the third stage, sample respondents households was randomly taken from each selected kebeles probability proportional to the size of their sample teff producer distribution.
The study was also target to trader of the teff in the study area. The sites for the trader were towns market in which a better sample of teff traders existed. On the basis of flow of teff , 6 markets kusaye, Habebe, Bantu, Asigor, Sebeta and Alemgena were selected. The sample size determination was employed using the formula given by Yamane . Generally, from 6 regional wholesalers, 27 farmer traders, 14 urban wholesalers 4 regional retailers, 18 urban retailers 4, 17, 7, 3, and 9 were selected randomly based on probability proportional to size in the selected market.
In addition, 2 commission men were randomly taken which make the total 42 participants. Primary data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires from teff traders and teff producers and interview from key informative.
The key informant was done by interviewing in-personal the people like leaders of each of the kebele, DAs and woreda trade, industry and urban development. For these study two types of data analysis, namely descriptive statistics for qualitative data and econometric analysis for quantitative data were used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and percentage have been used in the process of examining and describing household characteristics, marketing functions and trader characteristics.
This approach was developed in the United States as a tool to analyze the market organization of the industrial sector and then it was applied to assess the agricultural marketing system . The model examines the fundamental relationships between market structure, conduct and performance. Thus, for this study, multiple linear regression models was used to identify determinants of teff marketed supply.
In matrix form was specified as:. Multivariate probit model MVP was applied for household variation in the choice of a market outlet and to estimate several correlated binary outcomes jointly.
The market outlets had been categorized into four groups: wholesaler, farmer traders, retailers and consumer market outlets. Each farmer can use one or more marketing outlets or several combinations of different outlets which maximize the expected utility and due to this there was some overlapping and many farmers sell on more than one market outlet.
In this study, based on the result of the survey, both male headed household and female headed household participated in production of teff Table 1. The survey result showed the total sampled population of teff producers was The educational background of the sample household heads was believed to be an important role adoption of new yield enhancing technology and crop pattern.
Further, it was assumed that household head with good education level and had better understanding about the prevailing market scenario. About However, The survey on this major demographic factor, measured in years, provided a clue on working ages of households. A family size was ranging between was observed in the sampled farming households; the available data indicated that average family size in each household was 5. Availability and adequacy of road was important prerequisite to link producers with markets in reduced transaction costs.
The assessments on this continuum, measured in kilometer where most households could access the entry within 3. The analysis of marketing channel intended to provide a systematic knowledge of the flow of the goods and services from its origin of production to the final destination of ultimate consumers.
The survey result of sampled respondents depicts, out of Even though the teff channel in Tole woreda was complicated, the major channels of teff identified during the survey were explained as follows Figure Structure of the teff market: The structure of the teff market is characterized using indicators such as, market concentration, the degree of transparency market information and entry conditions.
Degree of market concentration: The analysis of the degree of market concentration was carried in Bantu markets, where regional wholesales, Regional retailer and farmer trader of the commodities were significantly involved. The result showed that, the teff market concentration ratio in the study area illustrated the presence of strong oligopoly market structure.
Barrier to entry and exit: With the presence of very high barriers to entry, established firms are difficult to stay longer in business. In this study educational background of the traders and lacks of working capital were used to analyze barriers of teff market entry and exit. Lack of working capital: Working capital refers to the amount of money required by teff traders to enter into the trading business. According to the survey result, about Market: There were no agreement upon procedures for analyzing the elements of market conduct.
The date from Tole Industry and Urban development Office pointed out that, supply of teff. But the supply started declining in the year from May to September. It is also reported that, all farmers supply their teff produce in a year. Simultaneously, all of teff producers sold their products on cash basis. According to the survey result, price of the product was set by market The remaining 2.
The selling strategy of the respondent farmers was open to any buyer. Place to sell: According to the result of survey, all teff traders purchased teff from farmers at the market place. On other hand, the survey result revealed that about While the rest of According to the assessment 5. Similarly, Marketing performance of teff markets were analyzed by considering associated costs, returns and market margins by taking into consideration the associated market costs for key marketing channels.
The methods employed for analysis of performance in this study were channel comparison, profit share and marketing margin. Though teff producers received different prices as sold to regional whole sellers, regional retailer, urban wholesalers and consumer, the average price was taken on analysis of benefit share of the actors Table 3.
Accordingly for the producers, ploughing, draft power, sowing and weeding cost had got the biggest percentage share of cost of production In a way of passing product from one actor to another, the actors improved the product quality by. The profit share of farmer trader was While producers, performing all the work of producing quality teff and bearing the associated risks, took only By taking the average sales prices of different participants in the teff market chain producers,.
From all actors, producers have got highest GMM in channel I when sell direct to consumer but this channel conveys limited amount of teff marketed.
I recommend that it be submitted as fulfillment of the Thesis requirement. We recommended that the Thesis is accepted as fulfilling the Thesis requirement for the Degree of Master of Science in Agriculture Agricultural Economics. This thesis has been submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for M. I solemnly declare that this thesis is not submitted to any other institution anywhere for the award of any academic degree, diploma, or certificate. Brief quotations from this thesis are allowable without special permission provided that accurate acknowledgement of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the head of the department or the Dean of the School of Graduate Studies when in his or her judgment the proposed use of the material is in the interest of scholarship. In all other instances, however, permission must be obtained from the author.
Use of this Web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Special Issues. Contact Us. Change code. International Journal of Agricultural Economics. Among the most important crops grown in Ethiopia wheat is one, both as a source of food and income generating venture for farmers in the country.
MARKET CHAIN ANALYSIS OF TEFF (Eragrostistef): THE CASE OF. DEJEN DISTRICT, EAST A Thesis Submitted to the School of Agricultural Economics and Teff is the second most important cash crop at national level after coffee (Efaet al., ).Teff sdstringteachers.org~bhumphre/class/zeros_sdstringteachers.org Inc., USA.
Markets are important for economic growth and development of a given country to ensure sustainable supply of food. Failure of market leads to failure of adoption of new technology which is necessary for increasing productivity. Sorghum has been considered as a strategic crop by the Ethiopian government aiming at enhancing food security and essential source of income for farmers as whole economic benefits to the country. The objective of this study was analyzing factors determining smallholder sorghum farmer decision to participate in output market and level of marketed output smallholder farmers in Kafta-Humera district of Tigeray Ethiopia. Descriptive and Tobit regression analyses were used to determine the key factors that influence household participation in the market in terms of volumes of product sales.
CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture works in collaboration with hundreds of partners to help developing countries make farming more competitive, profitable, and resilient through smarter, more sustainable natural resource management.
Смит кивнул: - Наш самолет в Малаге. - Он похлопал Беккера по спине. - Получите удовольствие, профессор. Вы летали когда-нибудь на Лирджете-60. Беккер усмехнулся: - Давненько не летал. Со вчерашнего дня.
- Она надулась. - Если не скажешь, тебе меня больше не видать. - Врешь. Она ударила его подушкой. - Рассказывай. Немедленно. Но Дэвид знал, что никогда ей этого не откроет.
Analysis of Wheat Value Chain: The Case of Sinana District, Bale Zone,. Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A Thesis Submitted to School of Agricultural Economics and production % ( million hectares) next to maize, sorghum and teff (CSA, of market chains with smallholder producers. Field. Manual 3. The Territorial.
Немедленно. Казалось, на директора его слова не произвели впечатления. - Должен быть другой выход. - Да, - в сердцах бросил Джабба. - Шифр-убийца.
Такси все еще двигалось рядом, тоже въехав на газон. Огромный лист гофрированного металла слетел с капота автомобиля и пролетел прямо у него над головой. С гулко стучащим сердцем Беккер надавил на газ и исчез в темноте. ГЛАВА 84 Джабба вздохнул с облегчением, припаяв последний контакт. Выключив паяльник, он отложил в сторону фонарик и некоторое время отдыхал, лежа под большим стационарным компьютером.
- Ему ведь всего тридцать лет. - Тридцать два, - уточнил Стратмор. - У него был врожденный порок сердца. - Никогда об этом не слышала.
- Беккер улыбнулся и поднял коробку. - Я, пожалуй, пойду. Меня ждет самолет.
Let us c 5th edition solutions pdf free download swami vivekananda quotes in telugu language pdf free downloadUskenrani 22.12.2020 at 10:39
Primary and secondary data definition pdf differences between terminal values and instrumental values pdfClodoaldo A. 24.12.2020 at 16:25
As Thesis Research advisor, I hereby certify that I have read and evaluated this thesis prepared, under my guidance, by Muhammed Urgessa, entitled Market.Amanda S. 26.12.2020 at 07:18
In Jimma zone of Oromia National Regional state, Tomato is a most important nutritional vegetable crop, which is mainly produced by smallholder farmers.