File Name: history of ancient israel and judah .zip
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The first attestation of the name outside the Bible on the Egyptian stela of Merneptah, c. It then served for at least two different monarchies and later again as a social or religious title for the people who inhabited the Achaemenid Persian province of Yehud.
Ancient Israel the United and Divided Kingdom. Along with the reemergence of Iron Age hierarchies and complex societies came the restoration of literacy and recursive institutions throughout the Near East. Written testimony about the social experiences and evolving world views of inhabitants survives for a number of societies. While many Ancient Near Eastern societies labored to reconstitute and to remodel themselves according to the values of the previous era, the written testimony of one society, ancient Israel, challenged traditional concepts of political legitimacy, human rights, and polytheism. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the history of ancient Israel is based largely on one source, the Old Testament.
After an emergent and large polity was suddenly formed based on the Gibeon - Gibeah plateau and destroyed by Shoshenq I in the first half of 10th century BCE,  a return to small city-states was prevalent in the Southern Levant , but between and BCE another large polity emerged in the northern highlands with its capital eventually at Tirzah , that can be considered the precursor of the Kingdom of Israel.
Israel's southern neighbor, the Kingdom of Judah, emerged in the second half of 9th century BCE,  and later became a client state of first the Neo-Assyrian Empire and then the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Following the fall of Babylon to the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in BCE, some Judean exiles returned to Jerusalem , inaugurating the formative period in the development of a distinctive Judahite identity in the province of Yehud Medinata.
Following the installation of client kingdoms under the Herodian dynasty , the Province of Judea was wracked by civil disturbances, which culminated in the First Jewish—Roman War , the destruction of the Second Temple, the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity. The name Judea Iudaea then ceased to be used by Greco-Romans. East of the plain and the Shfela is a mountainous ridge, the "hill country of Judah" in the south, the "hill country of Ephraim" north of that, then Galilee and Mount Lebanon.
To the east again lie the steep-sided valley occupied by the Jordan River , the Dead Sea , and the wadi of the Arabah , which continues down to the eastern arm of the Red Sea. Beyond the plateau is the Syrian desert, separating the Levant from Mesopotamia. To the southwest is Egypt, to the northeast Mesopotamia. The location and geographical characteristics of the narrow Levant made the area a battleground among the powerful entities that surrounded it. Canaan in the Late Bronze Age was a shadow of what it had been centuries earlier: many cities were abandoned, others shrank in size, and the total settled population was probably not much more than a hundred thousand.
The Canaanite city state system broke down during the Late Bronze Age collapse ,  and Canaanite culture was then gradually absorbed into that of the Philistines , Phoenicians and Israelites. The name "Israel" first appears in the Merneptah Stele c.
Archaeologist Paula McNutt says: "It is probably In the Late Bronze Age there were no more than about 25 villages in the highlands, but this increased to over by the end of Iron Age I, while the settled population doubled from 20, to 40, They described how, up until , the Israelite heartland in the highlands of western Palestine was virtually an archaeological terra incognita.
Since then, intensive surveys have examined the traditional territories of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh. These surveys have revealed the sudden emergence of a new culture contrasting with the Philistine and Canaanite societies existing in the Land of Israel earlier during Iron Age I.
The Israelite ethnic identity had originated, not from the Exodus and a subsequent conquest , but from a transformation of the existing Canaanite-Philistine cultures. These surveys revolutionized the study of early Israel. There was no sign of violent invasion or even the infiltration of a clearly defined ethnic group.
Instead, it seemed to be a revolution in lifestyle. In the formerly sparsely populated highlands from the Judean hills in the south to the hills of Samaria in the north, far from the Canaanite cities that were in the process of collapse and disintegration, about two-hundred fifty hilltop communities suddenly sprang up. Here were the first Israelites. Modern scholars therefore see Israel arising peacefully and internally from existing people in the highlands of Canaan. Extensive archaeological excavations have provided a picture of Israelite society during the early Iron Age period.
The archaeological evidence indicates a society of village-like centres, but with more limited resources and a small population. During this period, Israelites lived primarily in small villages, the largest of which had populations of up to or Their houses were built in clusters around a common courtyard. They built three or four-room houses out of mudbrick with a stone foundation and sometimes with a second story made of wood. The inhabitants lived by farming and herding. They built terraces to farm on hillsides, planting various crops and maintaining orchards.
The villages were largely economically self-sufficient and economic interchange was prevalent. According to the Bible, prior to the rise of the Israelite monarchy the early Israelites were led by the Biblical judges , or chieftains who served as military leaders in times of crisis.
Scholars are divided over the historicity of this account. However, it is likely that regional chiefdoms and polities provided security. The small villages were unwalled but were likely subjects of the major town in the area. Writing was known and available for recording, even at small sites. Unusually favourable climatic conditions in the first two centuries of Iron Age II brought about an expansion of population, settlements and trade throughout the region.
At this time Israel was apparently engaged in a three-way contest with Damascus and Tyre for control of the Jezreel Valley and Galilee in the north, and with Moab , Ammon and Aram Damascus in the east for control of Gilead ;  the Mesha Stele c.
It bears what is generally thought to be the earliest extra-biblical reference to the name Yahweh. LMLK seals on storage jar handles, excavated from strata in and around that formed by Sennacherib's destruction, appear to have been used throughout Sennacherib's year reign, along with bullae from sealed documents, some that belonged to Hezekiah himself and others that name his servants. Archaeological records indicate that the Kingdom of Israel was fairly prosperous.
The late Iron Age saw an increase in urban development in Israel. Whereas previously the Israelites had lived mainly in small and unfortified settlements, the rise of the Kingdom of Israel saw the growth of cities and the construction of palaces, large royal enclosures, and fortifications with walls and gates. Israel initially had to invest significant resources into defense as it was subjected to regular Aramean incursions and attacks, but after the Arameans were subjugated by the Assyrians and Israel could afford to put less resources into defending its territory, its architectural infrastructure grew dramatically.
Extensive fortifications were built around cities such as Dan , Megiddo , and Hazor , including monumental and multi-towered city walls and multi-gate entry systems. Israel's economy was based on multiple industries. It had the largest olive oil production centers in the region, using at least two different types of olive oil presses, and also had a significant wine industry, with wine presses constructed next to vineyards.
By contrast, the Kingdom of Judah was significantly less advanced. Some scholars believe it was no more than a small tribal entity limited to Jerusalem and its immediate surroundings. In the 10th and early 9th centuries BCE, the territory of Judah appears to have been sparsely populated, limited to small and mostly unfortified settlements. The status of Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE is a major subject of debate among scholars.
Jerusalem does not show evidence of significant Israelite residential activity until the 9th century BCE. On the other hand, significant administrative structures such as the Stepped Stone Structure and Large Stone Structure , which originally formed part of one structure, contain material culture from earlier than that. The ruins of a significant Juhadite military fortress, Tel Arad, have also been found in the Negev, and a collection of military orders found there suggest literacy was present throughout the ranks of the Juhadite army.
This suggests that literacy was not limited to a tiny elite, indicating the presence of a substantial educational infrastructure in Judah. In the 7th century Jerusalem grew to contain a population many times greater than earlier and achieved clear dominance over its neighbours.
Babylonian Judah suffered a steep decline in both economy and population  and lost the Negev, the Shephelah, and part of the Judean hill country, including Hebron, to encroachments from Edom and other neighbours.
The Babylonian conquest entailed not just the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple, but the liquidation of the entire infrastructure which had sustained Judah for centuries. The concentration of the biblical literature on the experience of the exiles in Babylon disguises the fact that the great majority of the population remained in Judah; for them, life after the fall of Jerusalem probably went on much as it had before.
Cyrus was succeeded as king by Cambyses , who added Egypt to the empire, incidentally transforming Yehud and the Philistine plain into an important frontier zone.
His death in was followed by a period of turmoil until Darius the Great seized the throne in about Darius introduced a reform of the administrative arrangements of the empire including the collection, codification and administration of local law codes, and it is reasonable to suppose that this policy lay behind the redaction of the Jewish Torah. Yehud's population over the entire period was probably never more than about 30, and that of Jerusalem no more than about 1,, most of them connected in some way to the Temple.
When Alexander died in , he had no heirs that were able to take his place as ruler of his empire, so his generals divided the empire among themselves. At first, relations between Seleucids and Jews were cordial, but the attempt of Antiochus IV Epiphanes — to impose Hellenic cults on Judea sparked the Maccabean Revolt that ended in the expulsion of the Seleucids and the establishment of an independent Jewish kingdom under the Hasmonean dynasty. Some modern commentators see this period also as a civil war between orthodox and hellenized Jews.
In order to carry out this project, the Hasmoneans forcibly converted one-time Moabites, Edomites, and Ammonites to Judaism, as well as the lost kingdom of Israel. He also took control of Yehud Medinata in because he was very aware that it was a great place to attack Egypt from and was also a great defensive position. However, there were others who also had their eyes on that area. Another former general, Antigonus Monophthalmus , had driven out the satrap of Babylon, Seleucus, in and continued on towards the Levant.
Seleucus found refuge with Ptolemy and they both rallied troops against Antigonus' son Demetrius , since Antigonus had retreated back to Asia Minor. Demetrius was defeated at the battle of Gaza and Ptolemy regained control of Yehud Medinata. However, not soon after this Antigonus came back and forced Ptolemy to retreat back to Egypt. This went on until the Battle of Ipsus in where Seleucus' armies defeated Antigonus. Seleucus was given the areas of Syria and Palestine, but Ptolemy would not give up those lands, causing the Syrian Wars between the Ptolemies and Seleucids.
Not much is known about the happenings of those in Yehud Medinata from the time of Alexander's death until the Battle of Ipsus due to the frequent battles. His reign brought them peace and economic stability. He also allowed them to keep their religious practices, so long as they paid their taxes and didn't rebel. He was victorious in both the first and second Syrian Wars, but after trying to end the conflict with the Seleucids by arranging a marriage between his daughter Berenice and the Seleucid king Antiochus II, he died.
The arranged marriage did not work and Berenice, Antiochus, and their child were killed from an order of Antiochus' former wife.
This was one of the reasons for the third Syrian War. Before all of this, Ptolemy II fought and defeated the Nabataeans. In order to enforce his hold on them, he reinforced many cities in Palestine and built new ones. As a result of this, more Greeks and Macedonians moved to those new cities and brought over their customs and culture, or Hellenism.
The Ptolemaic Rule also gave rise to 'tax farmers'. These were the bigger farmers who collected the high taxes of the smaller farmers. These farmers made a lot of money off of this, but it also put a rift between the aristocracy and everyone else. It is thought that this shows a turning point in the Jew's support of the Ptolemies. Both of these wars hurt Palestine more than the previous three. That and the combination of the ineffective rulers Ptolemy IV Philopater and Ptolemy V and the might of the large Seleucid army ended the century-long rule of the Ptolemaic Dynasty over Palestine.
He, like the Ptolemies, let the Jews keep their religion and customs and even went so far as to encourage the rebuilding of the temple and city after they welcomed him so warmly into Jerusalem. In order to raise this money, he decided to rob a temple. The people at the temple of Bel in Elam were not pleased, so they killed Antiochus and everyone helping him in BCE.
He was succeeded by his son Seleucus IV Philopater. He simply defended the area of Palestine from Ptolemy V before being murdered by his minister in His brother Antiochus IV Epiphanes took his place. Before he killed the king, the minister Heliodorus had tried to steal the treasures the temple in Jerusalem.
After an emergent and large polity was suddenly formed based on the Gibeon - Gibeah plateau and destroyed by Shoshenq I in the first half of 10th century BCE,  a return to small city-states was prevalent in the Southern Levant , but between and BCE another large polity emerged in the northern highlands with its capital eventually at Tirzah , that can be considered the precursor of the Kingdom of Israel. Israel's southern neighbor, the Kingdom of Judah, emerged in the second half of 9th century BCE,  and later became a client state of first the Neo-Assyrian Empire and then the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Following the fall of Babylon to the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in BCE, some Judean exiles returned to Jerusalem , inaugurating the formative period in the development of a distinctive Judahite identity in the province of Yehud Medinata. Following the installation of client kingdoms under the Herodian dynasty , the Province of Judea was wracked by civil disturbances, which culminated in the First Jewish—Roman War , the destruction of the Second Temple, the emergence of Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity. The name Judea Iudaea then ceased to be used by Greco-Romans. East of the plain and the Shfela is a mountainous ridge, the "hill country of Judah" in the south, the "hill country of Ephraim" north of that, then Galilee and Mount Lebanon.
By: Tammi J. The division continued until the Assyrians, whose empire was expanding during that period, exiled Israel in the late eighth century B. But the goal of the Bible was not to record history, and the text does not shy away from theological explanations for events. Given this problematic relationship between sacred interpretation and historical accuracy, historians welcomed the discovery of ancient Assyrian cuneiform documents that refer to people and places mentioned in the Bible. Thus, Jehu, the next Israelite king to whom the Assyrians refer, appears in the same order as described in the Bible. But he is identified as ruling a place with a different geographic name, Bit Omri the house of Omri. Silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden beaker, golden goblets, pitchers of gold, lead, staves for the hand of the king, javelins, I received from him.
The experiment with the opulence and power of the great eastern kingdoms had ended in disaster for Israel. King Solomon created the wealthiest and most powerful central government the Hebrews would ever see, but he did so at an impossibly high cost. Land was given away to pay for his extravagances and people were sent into forced labor into Tyre in the north. When Solomon died, between and BCE, the ten northern tribes refused to submit to his son, Rehoboam , and revolted.
Она посмотрела ему в. - Ты представляешь, что произойдет, если выйдет из строя система охлаждения ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Бринкерхофф пожал плечами и подошел к окну. - Электроснабжение уже наверняка восстановили. - Он открыл жалюзи. - Все еще темно? - спросила Мидж. Но Бринкерхофф не ответил, лишившись дара речи.
Аукцион? - Сьюзан подняла. Стратмор кивнул: - Как раз сейчас японские компании скачивают зашифрованную версию Цифровой крепости и пытаются ее взломать. С каждой минутой, уходящей на эти бесплодные попытки, ее цена растет. - Но это же абсурд, - не согласилась Сьюзан. - Ни один из новых шифрованных файлов нельзя вскрыть без ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Вероятно, Цифровая крепость - это стандартный алгоритм для общего пользования, тем не менее эти компании не смогут его вскрыть.
Я что-то не понимаю, - вмешался Фонтейн. - Чего мы медлим. - Сэр, - удивленно произнесла Сьюзан, - просто это очень… - Да, да, - поддержал ее Джабба. - Это очень странно. В ключах никогда не бывает пробелов.
Секрет выражения без воска был ему слишком дорог. Он уходил корнями в давние времена. В эпоху Возрождения скульпторы, оставляя изъяны при обработке дорогого мрамора, заделывали их с помощью сеrа, то есть воска. Статуя без изъянов, которую не нужно было подправлять, называлась скульптурой sin cera, иными словами - без воска. С течением времени это выражение стало означать нечто честное, правдивое. Английское слово sincere, означающее все правдивое и искреннее, произошло от испанского sin сега - без воска. Этот его секрет в действительности не был никакой тайной, он просто подписывал свои письма словом Искренне.
Неужели так .
Шекспир, - уточнил Хейл. - Гамлет. - Самообразование за тюремной решеткой. Хейл засмеялся. - Нет, серьезно, Сьюзан, тебе никогда не приходило в голову, что это все-таки возможно и что Танкадо действительно придумал невзламываемый алгоритм.
Пора отсюда сматываться. - Куда ты девал мои бутылки? - угрожающе зарычал парень. В его ноздрях торчала английская булавка. Беккер показал на бутылки, которые смахнул на пол.
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Critical Studies in the Hebrew Bible.Demi R. 15.12.2020 at 22:26
Como outros aspectos de suas identidades culturais, os humanos carregam suas identidades religiosas com eles enquanto atravessam as geografias.Markus D. 16.12.2020 at 04:49
Daily agenda pdf with objective and homework for the month for high school smart and gets things done pdf