File Name: introduction to drilling and drilling equipment .zip
A drilling rig is an integrated system that drills wells , such as oil or water wells, in the earth's subsurface. Drilling rigs can be massive structures housing equipment used to drill water wells, oil wells, or natural gas extraction wells, or they can be small enough to be moved manually by one person and such are called augers.
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Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is usually a rotary cutting tool , often multi-point. The bit is pressed against the work-piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the work-piece, cutting off chips swarf from the hole as it is drilled. In rock drilling, the hole is usually not made through a circular cutting motion, though the bit is usually rotated. Instead, the hole is usually made by hammering a drill bit into the hole with quickly repeated short movements.
Drilling for oil and gas is a complex process. The videos below provide basic knowledge of the drilling process. Before drilling, the site must be carefully chosen. Then the land is prepared and access roads should also be built. A reserve pit must also be dug on the ground for the disposing of mud and rock. The next step is arranging the rig equipment. When the rig is complete set up, workers can begin the drilling operation.
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is usually a rotary cutting tool , often multi-point. The bit is pressed against the work-piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the work-piece, cutting off chips swarf from the hole as it is drilled. In rock drilling, the hole is usually not made through a circular cutting motion, though the bit is usually rotated. Instead, the hole is usually made by hammering a drill bit into the hole with quickly repeated short movements. The hammering action can be performed from outside the hole top-hammer drill or within the hole down-the-hole drill , DTH.
Drilling fluids serve many functions: controlling formation pressures, removing cuttings from the wellbore, sealing permeable formations encoun-tered while drilling, cooling and lubricating the bit, transmitting hydraulic energy to downhole tools and the bit and, perhaps most important, maintaining wellbore stability and well control. Often referred to as mud, drilling fluid was first introduced around for subsurface pressure control. The s and '30s saw the birth of the first US companies specializing in the distribution, development and engineering of drilling fluids and components. In the decades that followed, drilling fluid companies introduced developments in chemistry, measurement and process engineering that led to significant improvements in drilling efficiency and well productivity. Drilling fluid compositions vary based on wellbore demands, rig capabilities and environmental concerns. Engineers design drilling fluids to control subsurface pressures, minimize formation damage, minimize the potential for lost circulation, control erosion of the borehole and optimize drilling parameters such as penetration rate and hole cleaning. In addition, because a large percentage of modern wellbores are highly deviated, drilling fluid systems must help manage hole cleaning and stability problems specific to these wells.
The circulation system on the rig is the system that allows for circulation of the Drilling Fluid or Mud down through the hollow drill string and up through the annular space between the drill string and wellbore. It is a continuous system of pumps, distribution lines, storage tanks, storage pits, and cleansing units that allows the drilling fluid to fulfill its primary objectives these will be discussed later in this lesson. The mud pumps of the circulation system and the drawworks of the hoisting systems are the two largest draws on the power from the power system. In the detailed rig schematic Figure 9. Drilling fluid is mixed in the mud pits and pumped by the mud pumps through the swivel, through the blow out preventer not part of the circulation system down the hollow drill pipe, through holes Jet Nozzles in the bit, up the annular space between drill pipe and wellbore where it lifts the rock cuttings , to the surface, through the Solids Control Equipment Shale Shaker , Desander , and Desilter , and back to the mud pits. A schematic of the circulation system is shown in Figure 9.
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Working Guide to Drilling Equipment and Operations offers a practical guide to drilling technologies and procedures.