File Name: concept construct and variable in research .zip
Distinctive features of articles accepted by the Journal of International Business Studies are that they are multidisciplinary in scope and interdisciplinary in content and methodology, and they make a substantial theoretical contribution to international business studies. Failure to meet this last requirement is an often cited reason given by reviewers for article rejection. Sometimes reviewers mean that a manuscript does not conform to the dominant paradigm, in that it is not the next logical step in the study of a phenomenon, or they mean that there is little if any integration of several theories used to explain a phenomenon. While the first two meanings may be influenced by the specific discipline or methodology involved, this final one is not. In this editorial we provide a set of guidelines that authors can use to ensure that their paper meets the standard of explaining the logic of the relationships they propose. Kerlinger, :
View the most recent version. Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please " contact us " to request a format other than those available. Scope and purpose Principles Guidelines Quality indicators References. They are the subjects of inquiry and analysis that are of interest to users. A variable consists of two components, a statistical unit and a property.
The author wishes to thank the following for offering valuable comments on earlier drafts of this article: Chuck Chakrapani, president, Leger Analytics and distinguished visiting professor, Ted Rogers School of Management; Brian Kiley, market research analyst, West Bend Mutual Insurance Company; David S. In this light, the purpose of this article is to 1 increase your understanding of what constructs are; 2 explain why developing good constructs is critical to conducting quality marketing research; and 3 provide you a few practical tools for developing better constructs in future studies. Two quick comments for clarification: First, the topic of what constructs are is rather complicated and cannot be comprehensively covered in this article. Consequently, this piece focuses on the kind of constructs used in brand image studies to predict brand loyalty. For a discussion of those kinds of constructs see the Goertz reference at the end of this article.
We discussed in Chapter 1 that although research can be exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory, most scientific research tend to be of the explanatory type in that they search for potential explanations of observed natural or social phenomena. Explanations require development of concepts or generalizable properties or characteristics associated with objects, events, or people. Knowingly or unknowingly, we use different kinds of concepts in our everyday conversations. Some of these concepts have been developed over time through our shared language. Sometimes, we borrow concepts from other disciplines or languages to explain a phenomenon of interest.
The first step in the measurement process is to define the concepts we are studying. Researchers generate concepts by generalizing from particular facts. Concepts are based on our experiences. Concepts can be based on real phenomena and are a generalized idea of something of meaning. Constructs: Constructs are measured with multiple variables. Constructs exist at a higher level of abstraction than concepts. Justice, Beauty, Happiness, and Health are all constructs.
In trying to solve a problem or find evidence to test a research hypothesis, both researchers and accounting professionals should clearly and precisely explain the meaning of the main terms, concepts, definitions and constructs or construct adopted and used in their study. The absence of this procedure can jeopardize the validity and reliability of the research findings or the results of a finished job, causing contradictions and overlapping explanations of the results that were found and their possible applications. The main terms and variables have to be conceptualized and defined in order to allow the researcher, the professional and anybody interested in the results of the job to share the same understanding about the concepts, definitions, possible constructs and variables included in the study, with a view to a similar comprehension of study results, conclusions and limitations. This text aims at presenting, discussing, explaining and exemplifying the meanings of accounting concepts, conceptual and operational definitions and constructs, with a view to a correct understanding of these essential categories of scientific and professional discourse, in accordance with the theoretical frame of reference they are inserted in. It discusses the functions, limitations and practical and theoretical opportunities of notions, concepts, meanings, conceptual and operational definitions and constructs, which are illustrated by examples and configurations from Accountancy. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3. User Username Password Remember me.
However, in scientific research, a variable is a measurable representation of an abstract construct. As abstract entities, constructs are not.
Researchers, very often, attach same meaning to the terms like "concept" and "construct" which are used in social research. Yet there is an important distinction. A concept expresses an abstraction formed by generalization from particulars. They are, of course, much more abstract than concepts such as "weight" "height" and "length".
In scientific research, concepts are the abstract ideas or phenomena that are being studied e. Variables are properties or characteristics of the concept e. The process of turning abstract concepts into measurable variables and indicators is called operationalization.
Росио нигде не. Дверь, ведущая в ванную, закрыта. - Prostituiert? - Немец бросил боязливый взгляд на дверь в ванную. Он был крупнее, чем ожидал Беккер. Волосатая грудь начиналась сразу под тройным подбородком и выпячивалась ничуть не меньше, чем живот необъятного размера, на котором едва сходился пояс купального халата с фирменным знаком отеля. Беккер старался придать своему лицу как можно более угрожающее выражение. - Ваше имя.
Наступил момент, которого она с ужасом ждала весь этот день. Немец лежит в постели и ждет. Самый крупный мужчина из всех, с кем ей приходилось иметь. Нарочито медленно она взяла из ведерка кубик льда и начала тереть им соски. Они сразу же затвердели. Это было одной из ее многочисленных хитростей: мужчинам казалось, что она сгорает от страсти, поэтому они стремились прийти к ней снова и. Росио погладила руками свои пышные загорелые формы - дай Бог, чтобы они сохраняли свою привлекательность еще лет пять-шесть, пока она не накопит достаточно денег.
Research problems and questions operationalization - constructs, concepts, variables and hypotheses. Sources: Amanda Leggett: Constructs, variables and.