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# Interpolation And Extrapolation In Statistics Pdf

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Extrapolation is a useful statistical tool used to estimate values that go beyond a set of given data or observations. In this lesson, you will learn how to estimate or predict values using this tool.

## Interpolation and Extrapolation

Interpolation means to calculate a point or several points between two given points. For a given sequence of points, this means to estimate a curve that passes through every single point. Linear interpolation is the simplest interpolation method. Applying linear interpolation to a sequence of points results in a polygonal line where each straight line segment connects two consecutive points of the sequence.

Therefore, every segment P; Q is interpolated independently as follows:. By varying t from 0 to 1 we get all the intermediate points between P and Q. As shown in Fig. In certain circumstances, we need a smoother interpolating function, that is a function that allows for a smooth transition between consecutive segments. The cosine interpolation carries out a transition that looks smooth, though every segment is interpolated independently.

A linear interpolation is an affine transformation from an unit interval [0; 1] to a straight line segment in R n , where f 1 t ; : : : ; f n t are the function components of f along each coordinate axis. See Lecture 1 for more details on affine transformations. This is illustrated in Fig.?? Linear Interpolation and Barycentric Coordinates.

Let us rst see the relation between collinearity and barycentric coordinates. Let P 0 , P , P 1 be three collinear points in R 3. Then, P is the barycentric combination of P 1 and P 2 given as follows:. We are now at a position that allows to show that the linear interpolation is given by Eq. By de nition, the ratio of three collinear points P 0 , P , and P 1 is given by.

Therefore, r P 0 ; P; P 1 remains unchanged by affine transformations, that is,. In short, an affine transformation preserves the geometric ratio of collinear points, that is, the image of a straight line segment is a straight line segment. The interval [a; b] can be obtained from the affine transformation of the interval [0; 1]. Because a; u; b and 0; t; 1 have the same geometric ratio as P 0 ; P; P 1 , we end up showing that the linear interpolation is invariant under affine domain mappings.

By affine domain mapping we mean an affine transformation from the real line to itself. The result is a polyline P, called piecewise linear interpolant of all points P 0 ; P 1 ; : : : ; P N. This is illustrated in FIg. The piecewise linear interpolation enjoys two properties, as described in the sequel. If a curve C is sub ject to an affine transformation f , then a piecewise linear interpolant of f C is an affine transformation of the original piecewise linear interpolant, that is,. Then, we have.

This is so because, unlike a straight line segment of the interpolant, the curve segment passing through the two endpoints of such a straight line segment is not necessarily convex. Let us now have a look at an important theorem in the context of piecewise linear interpolation. Theorem 2. Then, the points D; E ; F are said to be collinear if and only if. Proof Let us consider the piecewise linear interpolant of the points P 0 ; P 1 ; P 2.

For that purpose, we have only to determine the unknown third ratio , that is, we have to determine the barycentric coordinates of P. Taking into account that P is a barycentric combination of both straight line segments P u ; Q u and P t ; Q t , we have. Let us now see how repeated linear interpolation allows for a procedure to construct parabolas.

As we will see in lectures to come, the generalization of this procedure leads us to the construction of B'ezier curves. This construction procedure for parabolas uses repeated linear interpolation.

The construction of a parabola using repeated linear interpolation enjoys the following the convex hull property, because. Login New User. Sign Up. Forgot Password? New User? Continue with Google Continue with Facebook. Gender Male Female. Create Account. Already Have an Account? All you need of B Com at this link: B Com.

Linear Interpolation Linear interpolation is the simplest interpolation method. Cosine Interpolation As shown in Fig. Cubic Interpolation Hermite Interpolation Therefore, r P 0 ; P; P 1 remains unchanged by affine transformations, that is, In short, an affine transformation preserves the geometric ratio of collinear points, that is, the image of a straight line segment is a straight line segment.

Linear Interpolation over [a; b] The interval [a; b] can be obtained from the affine transformation of the interval [0; 1]. Property L4. The Menelaus Theorem Let us now have a look at an important theorem in the context of piecewise linear interpolation. Then, the points D; E ; F are said to be collinear if and only if Proof Let us consider the piecewise linear interpolant of the points P 0 ; P 1 ; P 2.

We intend to prove that For that purpose, we have only to determine the unknown third ratio , that is, we have to determine the barycentric coordinates of P. Download EduRev app here for B Com preparation. Arshit Thakur. It has gotten views and also has 4. Business Mathematics and Statistics. Related Searches. By continuing, I agree that I am at least 13 years old and have read and agree to the terms of service and privacy policy.

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## Introduction to Numerical Methods/Interpolation

Extrapolation is the process of taking data values at points x 1 , This is most commonly experienced when an incoming signal is sampled periodically and that data is used to approximate the next data point. For example, weather predictions take historic data and extrapolate a future weather pattern. Sensors may take the current and past voltages of an incoming signal and approximate a future value, perhaps attempting to compensate more appropriately. We have seen how to use interpolation to approximate values between points x 1 ,

Interpolation means to calculate a point or several points between two given points. For a given sequence of points, this means to estimate a curve that passes through every single point. Linear interpolation is the simplest interpolation method. Applying linear interpolation to a sequence of points results in a polygonal line where each straight line segment connects two consecutive points of the sequence. Therefore, every segment P; Q is interpolated independently as follows:. By varying t from 0 to 1 we get all the intermediate points between P and Q.

Interpolation is the process of deriving a simple function from a set of discrete data points so that the function passes through all the given data points i. It is necessary because in science and engineering we often need to deal with discrete experimental data. Interpolation is also used to simplify complicated functions by sampling data points and interpolating them using a simpler function. Polynomials are commonly used for interpolation because they are easier to evaluate, differentiate, and integrate - known as polynomial interpolation. In Newton's method the interpolating function is written in Newton polynomial a. Plugging in the two data points gives us.

Abstract. —Interpolation is the process of calculating the unknown value from known given values whereas extrapolation is the process of calculating unknown values beyond the given data points.

## Interpolation

Extrapolation and interpolation are both used to estimate hypothetical values for a variable based on other observations. There are a variety of interpolation and extrapolation methods based on the overall trend that is observed in the data. These two methods have names that are very similar. We will examine the differences between them.

### The Difference Between Extrapolation and Interpolation

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In this page you can download an Excel Add-in useful to linear, quadratic and cubical interpolation and extrapolation. The functions of this Add-in are very simple to use and they have context help, through a chm file. If you have an old release of Interpolation.

Plots Correlation Regressions Models. Until and unless you get into a statistics class, the preceding pages cover pretty much all there is to scatterplots and regressions. You draw the dots or enter them into your calculator , you eyeball a line or find one in the calculator , and you see how well the line fits the dots. About the only other thing you might do is "extrapolate" and "interpolate". The prefix "inter" means "between", so interpolation is using a model to estimate or guess values that are between two known data points.

PDF | Computational mathematics deals with the mathematical and non-​arithmetical steps that follow well defined model, for example an algorithm. The uses of two numerical methods 'Interpolation' and 'Extrapolation'.

#### Submission history

Question 1. Define Interpolation. Answer: It is the technique of estimating the value of the dependent variable Y for any intermediate value of the independent variable X. Question 2. Define extrapolation.

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Eglantine P. 22.12.2020 at 13:58

In the mathematical field of numerical analysis , interpolation is a type of estimation , a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.

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