File Name: pakistan and india relations since 1947 .zip
The relations between the two countries have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in which started the Kashmir conflict , and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations. Consequently, their relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion.
Since achieving independence in , the relations between India and Pakistan have been such that the talks of trade, cooperation and peace have often taken place parallel to the threats of war. They have fought four wars and on more than one occasion mobilised their militaries with a credible threat of war. Since the early s, the insurgency in Kashmir and terrorist incidents in other parts of India have affected bilateral relations in a profound way. Serious terrorist attacks in India causing huge loss of life, such as the Mumbai bombings in and Mumbai attacks in , have often led to the loss of public support for dialogue with Pakistan. Groups targeting the peace process between India and Pakistan have exploited this reality to the extent of setting up a trend.
This has been due to the legacy of a violent partition that witnessed inter-communal strife and, since then, the inability of various elected governments in Pakistan to fully control domestic and foreign policy.
The two countries have, consequently, fought several wars that ended with no real result or in victory of sorts to India. Neither country has benefitted in any concrete term from these wars; it could be argued, in fact, that they have only served to constrain the economic development of India and Pakistan, irrespective of the fact that India witnessed the elimination of the two-front threat posed by East and West Pakistan when East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh in Bilateral trade and commercial ties have remained in place between the two rivals despite their various ups and downs, however.
Partition could not, however, immediately remove or reduce cultural commonalities such as language, social norms, gastronomic tastes and other cultural ties. These divided families used their geographic locations to trade, sourcing products from both sides of the border and maintaining their cultural and familial ties.
Bilateral trade ties between India and Pakistan have undoubtedly remained hostage to the political vagaries of the relationship but only in a limited fashion. One indication of this is the fact that the two sides concluded fourteen trade agreements between and In , the year the two countries went to war over Kashmir again, Indian banks continued to operate their branches in Pakistan.
Following that war, however, and the degree of antipathy generated on both sides in the aftermath of the war, trade relations between the two countries all but came to a standstill for over eight years.
The two countries came together again in and a protocol on resuming trade relations was signed in That trade was very limited, however, and conducted on a very small number of mutually agreed upon items.
There were, additionally, trade-related disagreements between India and Pakistan even when trade was conducted. In , for instance, India decided to devalue the rupee believing that Pakistan would do likewise. India argued that the combination of higher raw jute prices, coupled with the devaluation of its currency, would price jute beyond its reach. Pakistan retaliated by imposing restrictions on the importation of some Indian manufactured goods.
I regard it as highly unfortunate that, instead of facilitating the normal flow of trade between the two countries, the Government of India should have embarked on a boycott of trade with us. While fixation of the rate of currency is entirely a question for each country to decide with reference to its circumstance, trade is a matter of prices.
India, however, has taken the extraordinarily unfriendly step of boycotting trade with us. Pakistan had developed an import substitution policy in the s, effectively the creation of a manufacturing base. Bilateral trade was truncated, however, first by the war of and then the war. These two wars and, later, the civil unrest in Kashmir in the s had a very detrimental effect on bilateral trade because they introduced a military element into what had been, until then, a purely commercial paradigm.
They persuaded the precursor to the World Trade Organisation, the Generalised Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, to insert an India-Pakistan-specific special clause into the Text of the Generalised Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that relates to international trade to reflect this circumstance.
Taking into account the exceptional circumstances arising out of the establishment of India and Pakistan as independent states and recognising the fact that they have long constituted an economic unit, the contracting parties agree that the provisions of this Agreement shall not prevent the two countries from entering into special arrangements with respect to the trade between them, pending the establishment of their mutual trade relations on a definitive basis.
The situation turned completely in the early s when, following the collapse of its strategic partner, the Soviet Union, and realising that it would need to enter fully into the international community if it were not to become a failed state, India embraced international trade with both arms and, subsequently, saw its economy grow rapidly.
This step was taken as part of the attempt by the two countries to lay the Kashmir issue to rest by the thirtieth anniversary of their independence. New Delhi terminated all air- and land-borne trade with Pakistan following the attacks on its Parliament in December , which it alleged were carried out by Pakistani-based militants. That imposition remained in force until A restrictive maritime trade regimen was also implemented.
As a consequence, informal trade between the two countries began, with trade occurring via third parties like Dubai, albeit at increased cost.
In , the two sides came together for a dialogue on trade. That dialogue would eventually extend over four more rounds of talks but culminated in three outcomes in a land-based trade route was re-opened, the restrictions on maritime trade were amended and the positive list was enlarged.
The ongoing dialogue was halted in the wake of the terrorist attacks on Mumbai and only resumed in It is interesting to note, however, that no drastic measures were enacted to stop or decrease bilateral trade over that period. In April , Pakistan initiated measures to grant MFN status to India and, in November of the same year, produced an itinerary to phase in that status.
A major part of that process was for Islamabad to move from a positive list approach to a negative one, which would list only those items that could not be imported from India — around 1, products and items; for its part, New Delhi curbed its list of restricted imports from Pakistan to just over in September From the Indian perspective, this is a very small part of its overall trade.
It could be perceived, nevertheless, as a measure of the importance of trade in the bilateral relationship that the two sides persist in ensuring that it continues. In the most recent instance of alleged cross-border violence, eighteen Indian soldiers were said to have been killed by militants who crossed the border from Pakistan in late September While these actions caused much debate and calls for action against the other on both sides of their common border, it is noteworthy that even after the Indian Government said it would review trade relations, the MFN status it has given Pakistan and the terms of the Indus Water Treaty, nothing of the kind has eventuated.
The volume of trade may be expected to fall in the aftermath of the September incident but, as the previous diagram demonstrates, the general trend of trade between the two countries remains upwards. This is borne out by the following diagram, which also indicates that while political events such as the one described can cause a downturn in trade between India and Pakistan, those ties resume and even grow once the initial anger and furore has died down.
The need to maintain the basis of a good relationship and the impact of violence on bilateral trade aside, pragmatism prevails. Beguiling though that thought may be, Pakistan has found it difficult to reduce its negative list, partly due to the influence of its manufacturing sector.
It, furthermore, wants India to reciprocate for the MFN status that Islamabad has offered it by reducing the so-called non-tariff barriers that include strict licensing rules, inspection rules and the subsidies offered to Indian farmers.
Given the delicacy of the current situation in India, particularly in terms of farmer suicides due to crop losses, it is difficult to see how the Modi Administration could satisfy that particular condition. Recent events have brought another impediment to potentially closer trade ties between the two neighbours. The size of this investment has caused Pakistan to re-evaluate its trade links with India and, finding those relatively insignificant, has opted to concentrate on building the pipeline.
This gives it access to Afghanistan and the Central Asian republics, bypassing Pakistan, which could, consequently, lose its immediate salience to India. These two factors, coupled with the ongoing antagonism, have the potential to disrupt the pursuit of bilateral ties by both countries. India and Pakistan share common cultural values in addition to divided families. The Indian film industry has a large following in Pakistan and Pakistani actors participate in Indian television programmes.
Cricket is yet another common factor. The game is closely followed in both countries and approaches something of a religious fervour in India. While matches between India and other countries are issues of importance for most urban and semi-urban Indians, matches between the Pakistani and Indian cricket teams approach a war footing, with strategies and tactics discussed in infinite detail.
A loss by either side is viewed as a disgrace by the losing country. So competitive are these matches and so susceptible to security concerns are they that it has been proposed that some of them be held in third countries.
It may not be too far from the truth to suggest that they have more in common than they do differences. Given this, it behoves them both to pay more attention to formulating strategies for their mutual benefit. While it is difficult to see this occurring in the near term, moves to facilitate better trade and people relations could only produce positive longer term outcomes in what continues to remain a dangerous region of the world.
Print Email. Key Points Bilateral trade between India and Pakistan is influenced by political trends. Those ties, nevertheless, show an upwards momentum. They require more attention, however, if they are to reach their full potential. The two countries are culturally similar, sharing similar languages, norms and institutions. With care, those commonalities could be used by both countries to mitigate adversarial frameworks.
Analysis Bilateral trade ties between India and Pakistan have undoubtedly remained hostage to the political vagaries of the relationship but only in a limited fashion. Accordingly, Paragraph XXIV, clause 11 of the Agreement reads : Taking into account the exceptional circumstances arising out of the establishment of India and Pakistan as independent states and recognising the fact that they have long constituted an economic unit, the contracting parties agree that the provisions of this Agreement shall not prevent the two countries from entering into special arrangements with respect to the trade between them, pending the establishment of their mutual trade relations on a definitive basis.
Any opinions or views expressed in this paper are those of the individual author, unless stated to be those of Future Directions International. Web: www.
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This has been due to the legacy of a violent partition that witnessed inter-communal strife and, since then, the inability of various elected governments in Pakistan to fully control domestic and foreign policy. The two countries have, consequently, fought several wars that ended with no real result or in victory of sorts to India. Neither country has benefitted in any concrete term from these wars; it could be argued, in fact, that they have only served to constrain the economic development of India and Pakistan, irrespective of the fact that India witnessed the elimination of the two-front threat posed by East and West Pakistan when East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh in Bilateral trade and commercial ties have remained in place between the two rivals despite their various ups and downs, however. Partition could not, however, immediately remove or reduce cultural commonalities such as language, social norms, gastronomic tastes and other cultural ties. These divided families used their geographic locations to trade, sourcing products from both sides of the border and maintaining their cultural and familial ties.
Shortly after PM on May 11, at Pokhran, a desert site in the Indian state of Rajisthan, groups of local Bishnoi herders—whose customs forbid killing animals or cutting trees—heard a huge explosion, and watched in amazement as an enormous dust cloud floated in the sky. What the Indian farmers did not realize, but the diplomats in Washington and around the world soon grasped, was the fact that India had just joined the United States, Russia, England, France and China as the newest member of the nuclear club. On that warm May afternoon, Indian nuclear scientists successfully exploded three atomic devices amounting to about six times the destructive power of the American bomb dropped on Hiroshima in The next day, as the world tried to absorb the frightening news, India ignited two more nuclear explosions. Even as ninety percent of Indians applauded then-Prime Minister Vajpayee's decision to go nuclear, then-U.
The war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the two countries over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The clash did not resolve this dispute, but it did engage the United States and the Soviet Union in ways that would have important implications for subsequent superpower involvement in the region. The dispute over this region originated in the process of decolonization in South Asia. When the British colony of India gained its independence in , it was partitioned into two separate entities: the secular nation of India and the predominantly Muslim nation of Pakistan. Pakistan was composed of two noncontiguous regions, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, separated by Indian territory. The state of Jammu and Kashmir, which had a predominantly Muslim population but a Hindu leader, shared borders with both India and West Pakistan. The argument over which nation would incorporate the state led to the first India-Pakistan War in —48 and ended with UN mediation.
The partition causes one of the largest human migrations ever seen and sparks riots and violence across the region. The Maharaja, faced with an internal revolt as well an external invasion, requests the assistance of the Indian armed forces, in return for acceding to India. He hands over control of his defence, communications and foreign affairs to the Indian government. Both sides agree that the instrument of accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh be ratified by a referendum, to be held after hostilities have ceased. Historians on either side of the dispute remain undecided as to whether the Maharaja signed the document after Indian troops had entered Kashmir i.
With continued violence in Kashmir and a heightened threat of terrorist activity by Pakistan-based militant groups, tensions and concerns over a serious military confrontation between nuclear-armed neighbors India and Pakistan remain high. In August , following a deployment of tens of thousands of additional troops and paramilitary forces to the region, the Indian government moved to revoke Article of the Indian constitution, removing the special status of Jammu and Kashmir. India-administered Kashmir remains under lockdown , with internet and phone services intermittently cutoff and thousands of people detained. Pakistan retaliated a day later with air strikes in Indian-administered Kashmir. Territorial disputes over the Kashmir region sparked two of the three major Indo-Pakistani wars in and , and a limited war in
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The India–Pakistan relationship remains one of the most fraught bilateral rivalries. in the contemporary international system. Since , both.
The partition of British India was one of the largest human migrations ever seen and sparked bloody massacres of refugees across the region. It displaced up to India became a secular nation with a Hindu majority population and a large Muslim minority, while Pakistan emerged as an Islamic republic with an overwhelming Muslim majority population and a very small population subscribing to other faiths. He handed over control of his defence, communications and foreign affairs to the Indian government. Fighting continued through the second half of
Он сделал все, что мог, теперь пора ехать домой. Но сейчас, глядя на толпу завсегдатаев, пытающихся попасть в клуб, Беккер не был уверен, что сможет отказаться от дальнейших поисков. Он смотрел на огромную толпу панков, какую ему еще никогда не доводилось видеть.
- Лживый негодяй. Вы промыли ей мозги.
Мой Бог. Это была настоящая красотка. - Спутница? - бессмысленно повторил Беккер.
Но если она окажется впереди, он подставит Стратмору спину. Волоча Сьюзан за собой, он использовал ее как живой щит. Преодолев треть ступенек, он почувствовал какое-то движение у подножия лестницы. Стратмор что-то задумал. - И не пытайтесь, коммандер, - прошипел .
- Не в этом дело… - Да в этом.
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