File Name: differences between terminal values and instrumental values .zip
Developed by social psychologist Milton Rokeach , the instrument is designed for rank-order scaling of 36 values, including 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values. The RVS has been studied in the context of personality psychology , behavior , marketing , social structure and cross-cultural studies.
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Within the last few years, the role of personal values in consumer behavior has begun to receive greater attention. Much of this research has been based upon the Rokeach paradigm and his method of measuring values. Because of an increasing dependence on the Rokeach instrument, this study investigates the extent to which the Value Survey of thirty-six personal values measures what it purports to measure--that is, terminal values relating to desired end states of existence and instrumental values relating to preferable modes of conduct. Factor structures derived from businessmen, parents, students, and the general population clearly indicate the existence of two distinct value categories. Their underlying dimensionality is investigated, and results are presented which confirm the Value Survey may be productively employed to differentiate among consumer groups.
In order to show the terminal values preference amongst young people, the Rokeach Value Survey was applied. University students with a high level of empathy amongst terminal values prefer most two values in personal character, that is wisdom and pleasure, and one in social character—family security. Similarly, students with a low level of empathy prefer most also two values in personal character, that is pleasure and freedom, and one in social character—family security. On the basis of the theory of those concepts, scientists have created appropriate study tools.
A value is commonly conceived of as any aim Popielski or object of aspiration for a human being Schwartz According to Rokeach , , the value concept is a constant belief that a specific mode of conduct or end ultimate state of existence is personally and socially superior to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. Rokeach distinguished two kinds of values: terminal, which are in personal and in social character and which define the end state of human desires and aspirations such as personal freedom, salvation , and instrumental values, which are in moral character and denote competency and which are seen as desirable modes of conduct e.
The terminal values denote aims that people set, whereas the instrumental values are modes of conduct thanks to which those aims can be achieved. Particular values exist within an orderly system.
Hence, a human ability to point to values which are higher or lower in his or her hierarchy of values. The Polish cultural adaptation of it was made by Brzozowski Research shows great deal of confusion regarding the nature of religious experience.
Some researchers describe this experience as profoundly religious. It is perceived as type of genuine and immediate contact with a power recognized as divine presence Otto or divine reality James ; Jung Others show that in origin, it has no religious reference. For instance, it is thought that religious experience could be a result of conflict between id and ego in the human being Freud a and that religious experience may be sourced by psychedelic drugs Smith ; Clark ; Grof On the basis of the theoretical concepts by James , Allport and Maslow , researchers have created several research tools for studying religious experience.
These include: Mysticism Scale Hood ; Hood et al. The following elements should be distinguished in it: the subject of religion a human being , the object of religion God personified and religious relation, which is in personal character.
The latter can be defined as a kind of bond with God personified through which a human being attains the aims of his or her own existence. Religious experience finds realization during a religious act Jarosz Religious act is of relational, transcendent, cognitive and evaluative nature James ; Scheler ; Radziszewski A human being, when entering a relation with God, gains new knowledge about another person and herself or himself.
These sorts of experience are specific and unique. They are frequently a source of different and new knowledge, which can be subject to psychological analysis. They are also a reason why opposing feelings appear in human life, like happiness—sadness, elation—doubt. Research results so far show a lack of a uniform opinion amongst psychologists about the understanding of empathy Hoffman ; Coplan It may be the most powerful factor for personal change Eisenberg , growth and development of a human being Rogers The concept of empathy as understood by Mehrabian and Epstein was applied.
It encompasses a regulatory function in man which determines various forms of interaction. Interaction, in turn, requires from people being in personal contact to build up mutual understanding. The Polish cultural adaptation of it was made by Rembowski Research by Czerniawska reveals that aggressive youth prefer hedonistic values, whereas young people who are socially well-adapted respect moral-religious values more. People with a high level of empathy respect most terminal values like family security, mature love, mature love and freedom, whereas people with a lower level of empathy respect more hedonistic values and values aimed at success.
Students with a high level of openness to experience show a greater sense of the divine. Their belief is more flexible, and they also reveal more curiosity in searching for new experience than students with a low level of it. They show better relations with their friends and families, a greater feeling of personal security, and they also seem to be associated with greater social involvement Krok However, it must be noted that empathic behaviour can be source of disharmony, and even conflicts with another person and the surroundings.
This has been indicated by some research Reykowski ; Carozzi et al. The question of the aforementioned factors related to self-accomplishment as a person is familiar to psychologists studying existential issues Frankl ; MacLean et al. However, there is still room for further research in that field of interest, which would be more detailed in its nature.
Empirical data referring to empathy, terminal values and religious experience found in related literature are, however, unambiguous, due to the fact that they largely depend on the specific of the subject group and on the understanding of a given problem adopted in the study procedure. According to Rokeach and Popielski , everyone has their own hierarchy of values.
The most preferred value takes up a central role in his or her life and also performs an essential regulatory function in his or her personality and religious life.
According to Rokeach , terminal values in personal character strongly focus on an individual and accomplishment of his or her existence, whereas terminal values in social character concern more the relation and attitude to another person and the surroundings.
Hence the expectation is that terminal values in social character have a significant relation to a high level of empathy. The aim of the study of this paper is to seek answers to the following study questions:. Students characterized by a high level of empathy, amongst terminal values prefer values in social character, whereas students with a low level of empathy prefer values in personal character.
A question appears: who to include as subjects of the study? What is typical for early adulthood is that a young person, after turbulent developmental changes leading to social adulthood, is aware of his or her ability to procreate, responsibility to take on new social roles, professional work and autonomy to direct their own life Rogers ; Pervin Early adulthood is a time when authentic religiosity is formed and differentiating criteria appear, such as religious from non-religious feelings Fromm ; Popielski The research was carried out amongst students, who were tested in order to produce empirical data which could be used to find the answers to the questions that had been raised.
The subject group comes from several non-Catholic public and Polish state universities. All students were Polish born, culturally homogeneous, and stemmed from families of average affluence. All the students declared belonging to the Roman-Catholic Church. Two hundred properly filled questionnaires were taken into account during the analysis there were two groups: males and females.
In order to solve the research problem, the following tools were applied:. It is comprised of a set of 37 statements in religious character and referring to the Christian religion.
They take into account the following elements: the object of religion God personalized , the subject of religion a human being , and a relation in personal character. For the interpretation of the results of factor analysis, the variables statements whose loadings exceeded 0. The scale has three sub-scales. The scale was tested on several samples, which included students of Catholic state universities as well as elderly people. The results obtained are related. The correlation coefficients are at a high level and positive 0.
Rokeach Value Survey was applied in order to determine values preference amongst students. It consists of two sub-scales. Each sub-scale consists of 18 values. One of the sub-scales is used to measure the preference of terminal values personal and social , i. The ranking correlation coefficients between the Polish and American versions of the terminal and instrumental values scales were 0.
The r Pearson coefficients for individual positions equalled: in case of terminal values—on average 0. In the present paper, only the scale of terminal values in personal and in social character was used. It is a method of self-description. Its authors referred to the already existing empathy scales, for instance those by Kerr or Dymond.
The authors of the questionnaire, Mehrabian and Epstein , include the emotional and cognitive element. The method consists of thirty-three statements referring to various situations, to which one is to respond according to his or her level of sensitivity. The result is then noted on the 9-point rating scale—from very strong disagreement to very strong agreement.
The variable referring to empathy was dichotomized. Hence, the criterion for division was values achieved in the QMEE. Two groups of people were formed, who scored high or low in the empathy questionnaire. The group with a low level of empathy consists of fifty-four people, the mean M for the group being 5. In order to show the significance of differences between the groups of respondents with a high and low level of empathy , the analysis of variance ANOVA was applied. The results were subsequently interpreted on the basis of the mean values M and standard deviations SD.
For the variables expressed by ranks, a nonparametric significance test Mann—Whitney U test was applied. Also, the procedure of the analysis of the multiple stepwise regression was applied. Ranking distribution of terminal values in personal p and in social s character in groups of university students with a high and low level of empathy.
In the group of people with a low level of empathy, the most preferred values are pleasure 6. In the group of people with a high H level of empathy, there are three terminal values relating to a sense of accomplishment 9t , true friendship 6t and salvation 16t. In the group of people with a low L level of empathy, these are terminal values relating to social recognition 11t , world peace 5t , self-respect 10t , pleasure 7t , wisdom 3t and inner harmony 12t.
In the group of people with a low L level of empathy, these are values referring to salvation 16t and mature love 2t. As a reminder, in the analysis of the terminal values hierarchy, only the three top values were considered which were most preferred by the students in the groups with a high and low level of empathy. The first hypothesis, which suggests that students with a high level of empathy amongst terminal values prefer values in social character most, and students with a low level of empathy prefer values in personal character, was only partly confirmed.
It was expected—in accordance with other research Czerniawska —that in the group of students with a high level of empathy there would be more terminal values in social character. Similarly to students with a high level of empathy, students with a low level of it prefer most two terminal values in personal character and one in social character. They refer to pleasure, freedom and family security.
It was expected that young people with a low level of empathy prefer values in personal character more, which can be implied from related literature Rembowski It seems that the treatment of the construct of emotional empathy cannot receive a one-dimensional consideration. The strongest terminal value in this configuration turned out to be a value in personal character—a sense of accomplishment.
The results obtained reveal that young people characterized by a high or low level of empathy respect values and have their own hierarchy of values which constitutes an important part of their personalities and religious life.
In the lives of university students characterized by a high and low level of empathy, a central place is taken by terminal values in personal character.
In order to show the terminal values preference amongst young people, the Rokeach Value Survey was applied. University students with a high level of empathy amongst terminal values prefer most two values in personal character, that is wisdom and pleasure, and one in social character—family security. Similarly, students with a low level of empathy prefer most also two values in personal character, that is pleasure and freedom, and one in social character—family security. On the basis of the theory of those concepts, scientists have created appropriate study tools. A value is commonly conceived of as any aim Popielski or object of aspiration for a human being Schwartz According to Rokeach , , the value concept is a constant belief that a specific mode of conduct or end ultimate state of existence is personally and socially superior to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. Rokeach distinguished two kinds of values: terminal, which are in personal and in social character and which define the end state of human desires and aspirations such as personal freedom, salvation , and instrumental values, which are in moral character and denote competency and which are seen as desirable modes of conduct e.
The distinction between intrinsic and instrumental value is one of the most fundamental and important in moral theory. Fortunately, it is not difficult to grasp. You value many things, such as beauty, sunshine, music, money, truth, and justice. To value something is to have a positive attitude toward it and to prefer its existence or occurrence over its nonexistence or nonoccurence. You can value it as an end, as a means to some end, or both. You value most things instrumentally, that is, as a means to some end.
The purpose of this study is to examine the functional relationships among terminal and instrumental values, environmental consciousness and behavioral intentions for green products in India in light of the value—attitude—behavior framework. This study adopts a hypo-deductive research design. A conceptual model was developed to relate the terminal and instrumental values to environmental consciousness and behavioral intentions, which are substantiated with a comprehensive literature review. The findings of the research indicate that terminal and instrumental values significantly influence environmental consciousness, and environmental consciousness has a significant influence on behavioral intentions. Instrumental value shows a greater influence on environmental consciousness and behavioral intentions, rather than terminal value. The present research is based on two distinct forms of human values, namely, terminal values and instrumental values. The study found that consumers who favored instrumental values to terminal values revealed a tendency to frame confused and incoherent judgments on environmental issues.
Instrumental values are the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime, while terminal values are the preferable modes of behavior in achieving theses values. C) Terminal values are the highest values in a person's value system, while instrumental values are the ones that are most often used.
Thank you so much for your post. It is the clear explanation helped me understand well about such two types of values. Post a Comment.
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Values refer to stable life goals that people have , reflecting on what is most important to them.
Однако он умел анализировать свои эмоции и не собирался позволить им отразиться на решении проблемы Цифровой крепости. Он заместитель директора Агентства национальной безопасности, а сегодня все, что он делает, важно, как. Его дыхание стало ровным. - Сьюзан. - Голос его прозвучал резко, но спокойно. - Тебе удалось стереть электронную почту Хейла.
С того места, где он стоял, казалось, что голова сотрудника лаборатории систем безопасности лишилась тела и осталась лежать на полу шифровалки. А потом медленно скрылась из виду в клубах пара. - Отчаянный парень, - пробормотал Хейл себе под нос. Он знал, что задумал Чатрукьян. Отключение ТРАНСТЕКСТА было логичным шагом в случае возникновения чрезвычайной ситуации, а ведь тот был уверен, что в машину проник вирус.
Он слышал собственный крик о помощи, но, кроме стука ботинок сзади и учащенного дыхания, утренняя тишина не нарушалась ничем. Беккер почувствовал жжение в боку.
Бринкерхофф почти физически ощущал, как интенсивно работают клеточки ее мозга. - Помнишь, что случилось в прошлом году, когда Стратмор занимался антисемитской террористической группой в Калифорнии? - напомнила. Бринкерхофф кивнул.
- Этот жучок вмонтировал кто-то другой, и я подозреваю, что по распоряжению директора Фонтейна. Я просто попал на все готовое. Поверь. Поэтому я и узнал о его намерении модифицировать Цифровую крепость.
Беккер заглянул в справочник Управления общей бухгалтерской отчетности США, но не нашел в нем ничего похожего. Заинтригованный, он позвонил одному из своих партнеров по теннису, бывшему политологу, перешедшему на службу в Библиотеку конгресса. Слова приятеля его очень удивили. Дело в том, что АНБ не только существовало, но и считалось одной из самых влиятельных правительственных организаций в США и во всем мире. Уже больше полувека оно занималось тем, что собирало электронные разведданные по всему миру и защищало американскую секретную информацию.
Когда он найдет копию ключа, имевшуюся у Танкадо, оба экземпляра будут уничтожены, а маленькая бомба с часовым механизмом, заложенная Танкадо, - обезврежена и превратится во взрывное устройство без детонатора. Сьюзан еще раз прочитала адрес на клочке бумаги и ввела информацию в соответствующее поле, посмеялась про себя, вспомнив о трудностях, с которыми столкнулся Стратмор, пытаясь самолично запустить Следопыта. Скорее всего он проделал это дважды и каждый раз получал адрес Танкадо, а не Северной Дакоты.
Вскоре появился пилот и открыл люк.