File Name: theory x and theory y theory z .zip
Work is changing. And the approach to and requirements of leadership are changing with it. The modern manager knows how to distribute responsibility, instill trust in their employees, and motivate team members to deliver their best work and ideas. But there are times when management is less about leadership and more about the staunch enforcement of rules and micromanagement of production. These differing management styles have been coined in the academic management community as Theory X and Theory Y. Because employees have historically been given a flat exchange of time and energy for income, workplace incentives have often been rooted in a fear of loss of employment, in earning potential from extra productivity, or in acquiescing to managerial dominance for promotion.
Theory X and Theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregor's XY Theory remains central to organisational development, and to improving organisational culture. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. Perhaps the most noticeable aspects of McGregor's XY Theory - and the easiest to illustrate - are found in the behaviours of autocratic managers and organisations which use autocratic management styles. Typically characteristics for an X-Theory manager are most or all of these:.
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees. Theory X is based on assumptions regarding the typical worker. Theory X managers believe all actions should be traceable to the individual responsible.
Theory XY (Douglas McGregor) and Theory Z (William Ouichi). Theory X an and management in the s: The X Theory and the Y Theory. McGregor.
In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise , McGregor proposed two theories by which managers perceive and address employee motivation. He referred to these opposing motivational methods as Theory X and Theory Y management. Essentially, Theory X assumes that the primary source of employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second.
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These theories are based on the premise that management has to assemble all the factors of production, including human beings, to get the work done. McGregor believed that management can use either of the needs to motivate his employees, as grouped under theory X and theory Y. But however, the theory Y yields better results than the theory X, how?
Introduction: Achieving a clear understanding of human nature is an important aspect of management in the work place. In order for managers and workers to work together as an effective and productive unit, the workers must know how they fit into the overall scheme of things, and the managers must have a clear understanding of how they can maximise productivity by supporting their employees through the appropriate leadership style. It is also extremely important for managers to realistically evaluate the working environment, as well as the characteristics of the task, in order to decide how he or she deals with and directs employees.
During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization.Gauthier B. 25.12.2020 at 16:14
PDF | Organizational Behaviour in the context of people management consists of several theories in which Theory X, Theory Y,Theory Z are the.