File Name: four stroke engine parts and functions .zip
Introduction In general, engines convert heat energy into mechanical energy by exploiting gas onto the piston and crankshaft assembly. The amount of energy depends on the rotational speed of crank shafts as per specifications. An internal combustion engine ICE is more efficient than a steam engine because an ICE is simple to start and disengage. An ICE is widely used in the field of transportation.
Generally, it is made of sheet metal. Most fuel tanks have a fuel gauge to check the fuel level and a drain plug to drain fuel. The pressure required to inject fuel into the combustion chamber to offset the pressure of compression is typically to psi. This work is mainly done by the injection pump. The injector nozzle atomizes fuel, which is the breaking up of fuel into small particles.
The fuel must be atomized when it enters the combustion chamber. Atomization occurs at a pressure between 1, to 4, psi. The oil is stored in the oil sump, from where an oil pump takes the oil through a strainer and delivers it through a filter to the main gallery. From the main gallery, the oil flows to the main bearings. After lubricating the main bearings, some of the oil falls back to the sump, some is splashed to the cylinder walls, and the remaining oil goes through a hole to the crankpin.
From the crankpin, the oil travels to the piston pin through a hole in the connecting rod web where it lubricates the piston rings. For lubricating camshaft and timing gears, the oil is led through the separate oil line from the oil gallery.
The valve tappets are lubricated by connecting the main oil gallery to the tappet guide surfaces through drilled holes. Our FE mechanical exam review course thoroughly explains the fundamental concepts and functional applications of mechanical engineering equipment parts. Oil Cooler An oil cooler is used for cooling lubricating oil. Higher temperatures will reduce the viscosity of oil, which causes a harmful oil film to form between moving parts. To eliminate this, an engine oil cooler is used.
Filters generally have pores on the surface, which are measured by microns. The lowest micron value typically has better filtration.
A filter set contains outer and safety filters in heavy diesel engines for better filtration. Turbo chargers have two impellers fixed on the same shaft. These impellers are driven by exhaust air. Generally, the air sucked in by the air filter is compressed before entering the cylinder bore, which results in high efficiency. The shaft will rotate at the speed of approximately , rpm to result in a longer engine life. The opening and closing of the valve is controlled by a camshaft.
The exhaust gases have a higher pressure than atmosphere; if these gases were to be released directly to the atmosphere, a loud, unpleasant noise would sound, similar to the sound of firing a gun. The muffler is used to cool the exhaust gases. The water in the jackets absorb heat from the cylinders. The heated water conducted through the radiator helps cool the water.
A starter motor receives its power supply from the battery. The pinion of the starter motor engages with the teeth of a flywheel ring and rotates, which then rotates the crankshaft. This rotation of crankshaft leads to the movement of pistons in the cylinders. The piston will suck air and fuel into the combustion chamber, which causes the engine to start.
After reaching a specific rpm, the starter motor withdraws its pinion from the flywheel. The belt is used to drive the shaft of the alternator. The main job of the alternator is to charge the batteries.
An oil cooler is used for cooling lubricating oil. Every cylinder in an engine is surrounded by water jackets. Mechanical engineers preparing for the FE exam are strongly encouraged to review heating and cooling systems prior to taking the FE Mechanical exam.
The electrical system of an engine is comprised of the following parts:. By School of PE February 20, Bundle Package. Continue Shopping. Proceed to Cart.
A four-stroke also four-cycle engine is an internal combustion IC engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft. A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. The four separate strokes are termed:. Nicolaus August Otto was a traveling salesman for a grocery concern. In his travels, he encountered the internal combustion engine built in Paris by Belgian expatriate Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. The Lenoir engine ran on illuminating gas made from coal, which had been developed in Paris by Philip Lebon. In testing a replica of the Lenoir engine in , Otto became aware of the effects of compression on the fuel charge.
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The information is broken down into three major sections: “Basic Engine Parts,”. “Basic Engine Terminology” and “Basic Four-Stroke Cycle Engine Theory.“ Lesson.
Introduction In general, engines convert heat energy into mechanical energy by exploiting gas onto the piston and crankshaft assembly. The amount of energy depends on the rotational speed of crank shafts as per specifications. An internal combustion engine ICE is more efficient than a steam engine because an ICE is simple to start and disengage.
A two-stroke or two-cycle engine is a type of internal combustion engine that completes a power cycle with two strokes up and down movements of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution. This is in contrast to a " four-stroke engine ", which requires four strokes of the piston to complete a power cycle during two crankshaft revolutions. In a two-stroke engine, the end of the combustion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke happen simultaneously, with the intake and exhaust or scavenging functions occurring at the same time.
A four-stroke engine is an Internal combustion engine , where four successive strokes i. Suction-Compression-Power-Exhaust completes in two revolutions of the crankshaft. Therefore, the engine is called a Four-stroke engine. In recent days the majority of automobile runs on a four-stroke cycle. Basic some terms used in this article:. This type of engine based on the Otto cycle. The various strokes in the operation of a four-stroke cycle petrol engine are described below.
Она пожала плечами: - Быть может, Стратмору не хотелось задерживаться здесь вчера вечером для подготовки отчета. Он же знал, что Фонтейн в отъезде, и решил уйти пораньше и отправиться на рыбалку. - Да будет тебе, Мидж. - Бринкерхофф посмотрел на нее осуждающе. - Дай парню передохнуть.
Похоже, не один Танкадо умел создавать абсолютно стойкие шифры. Ее мысли прервал шипящий звук открываемой пневматической двери. В Третий узел заглянул Стратмор.
Она вдруг начала светиться под кончиком пальца. Электричество. Окрыленная надеждой, Сьюзан нажала на кнопку.
- Господи Иисусе. - Ищите.
И я уверена, что большинство наших граждан готовы поступиться некоторыми правами, но знать, что негодяи не разгуливают на свободе. Хейл промолчал. - Рано или поздно, - продолжала она, - народ должен вверить кому-то свою судьбу. В нашей стране происходит много хорошего, но немало и плохого.
Вот. Она нахмурилась. - Ты не заметил ничего. Ну, может, дошел какой-нибудь слушок. - Мидж, послушай .
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