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For thousands of years a great and terrible secret has lain hidden in the depths of the Sea of Silt. In the heart of this vast dust basin, an endless storm of ash and shrieking wind guards the deadliest concentration of evil and power found on the dying world of Athas - the Valley of Dust and Fire. Valley of Dust and Fire more than doubles the known portions of the world of Athas. Intrepid explorers will discover new wonders and perils within the deadly Sea of Silt, from the beautiful island of Shault to the savage Mountains of the Sun.
A wildfire , bushfire , wildland fire or rural fire is an unplanned, unwanted, uncontrolled fire in an area of combustible vegetation starting in rural areas and urban areas.
Fossil charcoal indicates that wildfires began soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants million years ago. Wildfires can be characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties, the combustible material present, and the effect of weather on the fire. High-severity wildfire creates complex early seral forest habitat also called "snag forest habitat" , which often has higher species richness and diversity than an unburned old forest.
Many plant species depend on the effects of fire for growth and reproduction. Wildfires are among the most common forms of natural disaster in some regions, including Siberia , California , and Australia.
In the United States and other countries, aggressive wildfire suppression aimed at minimizing fire has contributed to accumulation of fuel loads, increasing the risk of large, catastrophic fires. Leading natural causes of wildfires include:  . The most common direct human causes of wildfire ignition include arson , discarded cigarettes, power-lines arcs as detected by arc mapping , and sparks from equipment.
Annual grassland fires in southern Vietnam stem in part from the destruction of forested areas by US military herbicides, explosives, and mechanical land-clearing and -burning operations during the Vietnam War. The most common cause of wildfires varies throughout the world. In Canada and northwest China, lightning operates as the major source of ignition. In other parts of the world, human involvement is a major contributor. In Africa, Central America, Fiji, Mexico, New Zealand, South America, and Southeast Asia, wildfires can be attributed to human activities such as agriculture, animal husbandry , and land-conversion burning.
In China and in the Mediterranean Basin , human carelessness is a major cause of wildfires. They can also flare up unexpectedly and ignite nearby flammable material.
The spread of wildfires varies based on the flammable material present, its vertical arrangement and moisture content, and weather conditions. Overall, fire types can be generally characterized by their fuels as follows:.
In monsoonal areas of north Australia, surface fires can spread, including across intended firebreaks, by burning or smoldering pieces of wood or burning tufts of grass carried intentionally by large flying birds accustomed to catch prey flushed out by wildfires.
Local Aborigines have known of this behavior for a long time, including in their mythology. Wildfires occur when all the necessary elements of a fire triforce come together in a susceptible area: an ignition source is brought into contact with a combustible material such as vegetation , that is subjected to enough heat and has an adequate supply of oxygen from the ambient air.
A high moisture content usually prevents ignition and slows propagation, because higher temperatures are needed to evaporate any water in the material and heat the material to its fire point. A wildfire front is the portion sustaining continuous flaming combustion, where unburned material meets active flames, or the smoldering transition between unburned and burned material.
Wildfires have a rapid forward rate of spread FROS when burning through dense uninterrupted fuels. The incidence of large, uncontained wildfires in North America has increased in recent years, significantly impacting both urban and agriculturally-focused areas.
The physical damage and health pressures left in the wake of uncontrolled fires has especially devastated farm and ranch operators in affected areas, prompting concern from the community of healthcare providers and advocates servicing this specialized occupational population. Especially large wildfires may affect air currents in their immediate vicinities by the stack effect : air rises as it is heated, and large wildfires create powerful updrafts that will draw in new, cooler air from surrounding areas in thermal columns.
The thermal heat from a wildfire can cause significant weathering of rocks and boulders, heat can rapidly expand a boulder and thermal shock can occur, which may cause an object's structure to fail.
Intensity also increases during daytime hours. Burn rates of smoldering logs are up to five times greater during the day due to lower humidity, increased temperatures, and increased wind speeds. At night the land cools, creating air currents that travel downhill. Wildfires are fanned by these winds and often follow the air currents over hills and through valleys. In extreme heat and dryness caused massive wildfires in Siberia , Alaska , Canary Islands , Australia , and in the Amazon rainforest.
The fires in the latter were caused mainly by illegal logging. The smoke from the fires expanded on huge territory including major cities, dramatically reducing air quality.
There will be no going back. Wildfires release large amounts of carbon dioxide, black and brown carbon particles, and ozone precursors such as volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides NOx into the atmosphere.
These emissions affect radiation, clouds, and climate on regional and even global scales. Wildfires also emit substantial amounts of semi-volatile organic species that can partition from the gas phase to form secondary organic aerosol SOA over hours to days after emission. In addition, the formation of the other pollutants as the air is transported can lead to harmful exposures for populations in regions far away from the wildfires.
Smoke that is injected above the planetary boundary layer PBL may be detectable from spaceborne satellites and play a role in altering the Earth's energy budget, but would not mix down to the surface where it would impact air quality and human health. Alternatively, smoke confined to a shallow PBL through nighttime stable stratification of the atmosphere or terrain trapping may become particularly concentrated and problematic for surface air quality.
Wildfire intensity and smoke emissions are not constant throughout the fire lifetime and tend to follow a diurnal cycle that peaks in late afternoon and early evening, and which may be reasonably approximated using a monomodal or bimodal normal distribution.
Wildfire's occurrence throughout the history of terrestrial life invites conjecture that fire must have had pronounced evolutionary effects on most ecosystems' flora and fauna. Fire helps to return nutrients from plant matter back to soil, the heat from fire is necessary to the germination of certain types of seeds, and the snags dead trees and early successional forests created by high-severity fire create habitat conditions that are beneficial to wildlife.
Although some ecosystems rely on naturally occurring fires to regulate growth, some ecosystems suffer from too much fire, such as the chaparral in southern California and lower-elevation deserts in the American Southwest. The increased fire frequency in these ordinarily fire-dependent areas has upset natural cycles, damaged native plant communities, and encouraged the growth of non-native weeds.
Because they are highly flammable, they can increase the future risk of fire, creating a positive feedback loop that increases fire frequency and further alters native vegetation communities. In the Amazon Rainforest , drought, logging, cattle ranching practices, and slash-and-burn agriculture damage fire-resistant forests and promote the growth of flammable brush, creating a cycle that encourages more burning.
In tundra there is a natural pattern of accumulation of fuel and wildfire which varies depending on the nature of vegetation and terrain. Research in Alaska has shown fire-event return intervals, FRIs that typically vary from to years with dryer lowland areas burning more frequently than wetter upland areas.
Plants in wildfire-prone ecosystems often survive through adaptations to their local fire regime. Such adaptations include physical protection against heat, increased growth after a fire event, and flammable materials that encourage fire and may eliminate competition.
For example, plants of the genus Eucalyptus contain flammable oils that encourage fire and hard sclerophyll leaves to resist heat and drought, ensuring their dominance over less fire-tolerant species. Smoke, charred wood, and heat can stimulate the germination of seeds in a process called serotiny.
Grasslands in Western Sabah , Malaysian pine forests, and Indonesian Casuarina forests are believed to have resulted from previous periods of fire. An optimum fire frequency for growth is every 3 to 10 years. Too frequent fires favor herbaceous plants , and infrequent fires favor species typical of Bahamian dry forests. The vertical lift of a severe thunderstorm or pyrocumulonimbus can be enhanced in the area of a large wildfire, which can propel smoke, soot, and other particulate matter as high as the lower stratosphere.
Wildfires can affect local atmospheric pollution,  and release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. To put that into perspective this amounts to the same amount of carbon emitted by 36 million cars in a year. The recent wildfires and their massive CO2 emissions mean that it will be important to take them into consideration when implementing measures for reaching greenhouse gas reduction targets accorded with the Paris climate agreement. As of , earth's atmosphere has parts per million of carbon, and the destruction of the Amazon would add about 38 parts per million.
Low atmospheric oxygen during the Middle and Late Devonian was accompanied by a decrease in charcoal abundance. Wildfires during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic periods followed patterns similar to fires that occur in modern times. Surface fires driven by dry seasons [ clarification needed ] are evident in Devonian and Carboniferous progymnosperm forests.
Lepidodendron forests dating to the Carboniferous period have charred peaks, evidence of crown fires. In Jurassic gymnosperm forests, there is evidence of high frequency, light surface fires. As these grasses shifted to more mesic habitats , their high flammability increased fire frequency, promoting grasslands over woodlands.
The human use of fire for agricultural and hunting purposes during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic ages altered the preexisting landscapes and fire regimes. Woodlands were gradually replaced by smaller vegetation that facilitated travel, hunting, seed-gathering and planting.
However, while ancient Hebrew, Greek, and Roman writers were aware of fires, they were not very interested in the uncultivated lands where wildfires occurred. From the Middle ages , accounts were written of occupational burning as well as customs and laws that governed the use of fire. In Germany, regular burning was documented in in the Odenwald and in in the Black Forest. In Spain during the s, sheep husbandry was discouraged in certain provinces by Philip II due to the harmful effects of fires used in transhumance.
Scottish botanist David Douglas noted the native use of fire for tobacco cultivation, to encourage deer into smaller areas for hunting purposes, and to improve foraging for honey and grasshoppers. Charcoal found in sedimentary deposits off the Pacific coast of Central America suggests that more burning occurred in the 50 years before the Spanish colonization of the Americas than after the colonization.
Wildfires typically occurred during periods of increased temperature and drought. An increase in fire-related debris flow in alluvial fans of northeastern Yellowstone National Park was linked to the period between AD and , coinciding with the Medieval Warm Period. Dendrochronological fire scar data and charcoal layer data in Finland suggests that, while many fires occurred during severe drought conditions, an increase in the number of fires during BC and AD can be attributed to human influence.
However, a period of increased fire frequency between and was suggested by charcoal data from North America and Asia, attributed to human population growth and influences such as land clearing practices.
This period was followed by an overall decrease in burning in the 20th century, linked to the expansion of agriculture, increased livestock grazing, and fire prevention efforts. According to a paper published in Science , the number of natural and human-caused fires decreased by Researchers explain this a transition from nomadism to settled lifestyle and intensification of agriculture that lead to a drop in the use of fire for land clearing. Increases of certain native tree species i. Some invasive species , moved in by humans i.
Examples include species such as Eucalyptus in California   and gamba grass in Australia. Wildfire prevention refers to the preemptive methods aimed at reducing the risk of fires as well as lessening its severity and spread. In , U. President Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated a nationwide fire prevention campaign, highlighting the role of human carelessness in forest fires. Later posters of the program featured Uncle Sam , characters from the Disney movie Bambi , and the official mascot of the U.
Forest Service , Smokey Bear. Alteration of fuels is commonly undertaken when attempting to affect future fire risk and behavior. Controlled burns are fires ignited by government agencies under less dangerous weather conditions. Strategies for wildfire prevention, detection, control and suppression have varied over the years. Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, and the School of Forestry and Bureau of Business and Economic Research at the University of Montana, through strategic assessments of fire hazards and the potential effectiveness and costs of different hazard reduction treatments, clearly demonstrate that the most effective short- and long-term forest fire hazard reduction strategy and by far the most cost-effective method to yield long-term mitigation of forest fire risk is a comprehensive fuel reduction strategy that involves mechanical removal of overstocked trees through commercial logging and non-commercial thinning with no restrictions on the size of trees that are removed, resulting in considerably better long-term results compared to a non-commercial "thin below" operation or a commercial logging operation with diameter restrictions.
Building codes in fire-prone areas typically require that structures be built of flame-resistant materials and a defensible space be maintained by clearing flammable materials within a prescribed distance from the structure. Fast and effective detection is a key factor in wildfire fighting.
The Handbook is designed for use by mining equipment operators, supervisors and superintendents and environmental regulators. The handbook. During spring , the EPA is undertaking a special operation targeting Hunter Valley coal mines to tackle excessive dust levels. Operation Bust the Dust involves frequent inspections of mines on hot, dry and windy days, to check that extra controls are in place at the mines to minimise dust. Coal mines are required to implement procedures to reduce dust from their operations, such as by watering unsealed roads, avoiding dust-generating activities during windy weather and minimising the impact of drilling operations. Officers are using the latest technology, including drones, to see the source of any dust and if the appropriate controls are in place.
Valley fever is a fungal lung infection that can be devastating. Learning about Valley fever can help you and your doctor recognize the symptoms early. Valley fever is an infection caused by a fungus that lives in the soil. About 10, cases are reported in the United States each year, mostly from Arizona and California. Valley fever can be misdiagnosed because its symptoms are similar to those of other illnesses. Here are some important things to know about Valley fever, also called coccidioidomycosis.
Note: downloads can take up to ten minutes, right click and save file as if you are having trouble opening the file in your browser. To view or download some of these files, you will need Adobe Acrobat Reader software. It can be downloaded for free here. Read the report for more information about the health and safety concerns as well as recommendations for building a just and sustainable solar energy industry. On April 2nd, the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition SVTC released a report exposing the potentially catastrophic impact on your health and environment of a nanotechnology industry that runs unchecked. In the first nationwide test for brominated flame retardants in computer dust, these neuro-toxic chemicals were found on every sample.
- Скажи первое, что придет в голову. - Ассоциативный ряд? - по-прежнему недоумевал Дэвид. - Стандартная для АНБ процедура. Мне нужно знать, с кем я имею. - Глаза ее смотрели сурово.
Я отправил Дэвида в Испанию. ГЛАВА 11 Испания. Я отправил Дэвида в Испанию.
Нуматака затянулся сигарой умами и, выпустив струю дыма, решил подыграть этому любителю шарад. - Итак, вы хотите продать ключ, имеющийся в вашем распоряжении.
Энсей Танкадо создал не поддающийся взлому код. Он держит нас в заложниках. Внезапно она встала. В голосе ее прозвучала удивительная решимость: - Мы должны установить с ним контакт. Должен быть способ убедить его не выпускать ключ из рук. Мы обязаны утроить самое высокое сделанное ему предложение.
- Стратмор приподнял брови, точно ждал объяснений. - Японские иероглифы. Стратмор покачал головой. - Это и мне сразу пришло в голову. Но послушай: канадец сказал, что буквы не складывались во что-то вразумительное. Японские иероглифы не спутаешь с латиницей.
- Мне нужно в туалет. Хейл ухмыльнулся, но, подождав еще минуту, отошел в сторону. - Извини, Сью, я пошутил. Сьюзан быстро проскочила мимо него и вышла из комнаты. Проходя вдоль стеклянной стены, она ощутила на себе сверлящий взгляд Хейла. Сьюзан пришлось сделать крюк, притворившись, что она направляется в туалет.
Двухцветный задумался и развел руками.
Ты волнуешься о Дэвиде. Ее верхняя губа чуть дрогнула. Стратмор подошел еще ближе.
Nein, - солгал немец. - Я не. Я сейчас же отправлю ее домой.
The Valley of Dust and Fire, an accessory for the. DARK SUN™ campaign setting, describes the most terrible, most dangerous spot in the entire.George K. 24.12.2020 at 17:49
Reflexive and reciprocal pronouns exercises pdf health risks of carbon dioxide emissions pdfFibrielighba 26.12.2020 at 17:08
A wildfire , bushfire , wildland fire or rural fire is an unplanned, unwanted, uncontrolled fire in an area of combustible vegetation starting in rural areas and urban areas.