File Name: framed structure and load bearing structure .zip
The portion above the ground level and below the ground floor level is known as a plinth. The portion above the ground floor level is known as super-structure.
The above portion the ground level and under the ground floor level is known as plinth. It includes walls, columns, beams, floors, roofs, doors, windows, lintels, staircases. In this chapter types of super structures based on the method of load transfer is first presented and then the various components are discussed giving their functions and types. In this type of structure the load on the structure is transferred vertically downward through walls. Loads from roof and floors gets transferred to wall and then wall has to transfer these loads as well as self weight. Such constructions are used in residential buildings where dimension of rooms is less. In this type of structures a frame work of columns, beams and floors are built first.
Kuo have conducted experimental tests on dual structures. In addition, the energy consumption of bare frame is greater than that of dual frame. Its virtue is its versatility, i. Traditionally column spacings and floor spans in these buildings have been in the range of 6 to 9 metres, to both contain costs and simplify construction. On detailing of reinforced-concrete frame structures for robustness and for earthquake resistance R.
With increasing urbanisation in developing countries such as India, designing low-cost and energy-efficient housing is an urgent requirement. Adoption of sustainable construction methods and materials assist in reducing the environmental impact and cost of these constructions.
A load-bearing wall or bearing wall is a wall that is an active structural element of a building , which holds the weight of the elements above it, by conducting its weight to a foundation structure below it. Load -bearing walls are one of the earliest forms of construction. The development of the flying buttress in Gothic architecture allowed structures to maintain an open interior space, transferring more weight to the buttresses instead of to central bearing walls. In housing, load-bearing walls are most common in the light construction method known as " platform framing ". In the birth of the skyscraper era, the concurrent rise of steel as a more suitable framing system first designed by William Le Baron Jenney , and the limitations of load-bearing construction in large buildings, led to a decline in the use of load-bearing walls in large-scale commercial structures.
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