diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus american diabetes association pdf Thursday, December 17, 2020 1:52:50 AM

Diagnosis And Classification Of Diabetes Mellitus American Diabetes Association Pdf

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Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of differentorgans, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues. Impairment of insulin secretion and defects in insulin action frequently coexist in the same patient, and it is often unclear which abnormality, if either alone, is the primary cause of the hyperglycemia.

Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis

Diabetes mellitus DM , commonly known as diabetes , is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin , or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections. The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss , polyuria increased urination , polydipsia increased thirst , and polyphagia increased hunger. Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurred vision , headache , fatigue , slow healing of cuts , and itchy skin.

This recommendation aims to provide up-to-date information and the latest consensus on diabetes diagnosis from a group of experts in Germany. The disease diabetes mellitus is classified and its different types are described briefly. Options for diagnosis are presented including current cut-off values as well as reference intervals to recognize glucose utilization disorders like impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Special attention is paid to the measurement value imprecision. The minimal difference MD is introduced as an excellent measure to distinguish measurement results which are analytically different from each other. Potential caveats considering pre-analytics in glucose measurement and limitations of HbA 1c assessment for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus are presented. Taken together, this recommendation provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in diabetes mellitus diagnosis and also critically evaluates potential pitfalls.

Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases associated with various metabolic disorders, the main feature of which is chronic hyperglycemia due to insufficient insulin action. Its pathogenesis involves both genetic and environmental factors. The long-term persistence of metabolic disorders can cause susceptibility to specific complications and also foster arteriosclerosis. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a broad range of clinical presentations, from being asymptomatic to ketoacidosis or coma, depending on the degree of metabolic disorder. The classification of glucose metabolism disorders is principally derived from etiology, and includes staging of pathophysiology based on the degree of deficiency of insulin action. These disorders are classified into four groups: i type 1 diabetes mellitus; ii type 2 diabetes mellitus; iii diabetes mellitus those due to other specific mechanisms or diseases; and iv gestational diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by combinations of decreased insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity insulin resistance.

Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

Given the numbers for diabetes mellitus DM in general and diabetes mellitus type 2 DM2 in particular the more frequently occurring form , diabetes is a health and socioeconomic problem of the first magnitude. In the case of DM2, the numbers speak for themselves. It must be said that the most optimistic view is that these numbers will increase exponentially during this century will not only affect the western world, but in the year will reach million individuals worldwide. The treatment of DM2 and its complications costs Canada 7 to 20 billion dollars annually. In the European Union, the direct annual medical cost of patients with DM2 is 29 million euros; of this amount, only 3.

The right classification for diabetes mellitus DM allows a more adequate treatment and comprises four categories: type 1 DM, type 2 DM, other types, and gestational diabetes. In some cases, there might be a superposition of situations, especially with regard to the DM that initiates in the young adult or is initially presented with diabetic ketoacidosis intermediately to type 1 and 2 DM. Thus, additions to the classic classification system have been proposed as assessing the presence of autoimmunity antibody and b cell function C-peptide to precisely define the subtypes. The antibodies against pancreas confirm autoimmunity, and the antibody against insulin is more accurate before 5 years old, while the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase is more accurate after 20 years old, a test which remains positive for a longer period. The measurement of C-peptide evaluates the pancreatic insulin reserve, and the most largely used methods of stimulation are the measurement after meals or after intravenous glucagon. Estimative for world prevalence is around 4.

Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

Patient education and self management are central to treating type 2 diabetes mellitus and preventing its associated complications. There are 4. Around one in three of these people will already have microvascular complications on diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM [1] and the risk of developing cardiovascular complications e.

This assay is not useful in determining day-to-day glucose control and should not be used to replace daily home testing of blood glucose. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder associated with disturbances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia. It is one of the most prevalent diseases, affecting approximately 24 million individuals in the United States.

Background: Low and medium income countries LMICs especially in sub-Saharan Africa face unique challenges in screening and diagnosing hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. The implications of applying the WHO modifications for assessing hyperglycaemia in pregnancy in low resource settings are not known. We evaluated the significance of these recent changes in classification of hyperglycaemia among pregnant Nigerian women. Results: The results show that

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Report of the Committee on the classification and diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus

The major revision was that HbA1c became the first line, that a diagnosis of diabetes was enabled using HbA1c and the plasma glucose level at one time. Early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes are expected by this revision. They also adopted HbA1c in diagnostic criteria to reflect chronic hyperglycemic states better.

В случае перегрева он выключится без чьей-либо помощи. - Вы сумасшедший, - с презрением в голосе ответил Хейл.  - Мне наплевать, даже если ваш ТРАНСТЕКСТ взлетит на воздух.

Последний из трех миллионов процессоров размером с почтовую марку занял свое место, все программное обеспечение было установлено, и керамическая оболочка наглухо заделана. ТРАНСТЕКСТ появился на свет. Хотя создававшийся в обстановке повышенной секретности ТРАНСТЕКСТ стал плодом усилий многих умов и принцип его работы не был доступен ни одному человеку в отдельности, он, в сущности, был довольно прост: множество рук делают груз легким. Три миллиона процессоров работали параллельно - считая с неимоверной скоростью, перебирая все мыслимые комбинации символов. Надежда возлагалась на то, что шифры даже с самыми длинными ключами не устоят перед исключительной настойчивостью ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Этот многомиллиардный шедевр использовал преимущество параллельной обработки данных, а также некоторые секретные достижения в оценке открытого текста для определения возможных ключей и взламывания шифров. Его мощь основывалась не только на умопомрачительном количестве процессоров, но также и на достижениях квантового исчисления - зарождающейся технологии, позволяющей складировать информацию в квантово-механической форме, а не только в виде двоичных данных.

Diagnosis and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Стратмор прикрыл ее своим пиджаком. В нескольких метрах от них лежало тело Хейла. Выли сирены. Как весенний лед на реке, потрескивал корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА.

В случае перегрева он выключится без чьей-либо помощи. - Вы сумасшедший, - с презрением в голосе ответил Хейл.  - Мне наплевать, даже если ваш ТРАНСТЕКСТ взлетит на воздух. Эту проклятую машину так или иначе следует объявить вне закона. Стратмор вздохнул.

 - К вашему сведению, ваш ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся. - Что ты говоришь? - засмеялся Стратмор.  - Что же ты предлагаешь.

Diabetes Mellitus: Screening and Diagnosis

5 Comments

Eunice F. 19.12.2020 at 02:09

American Diabetes Association Article; Figures & Tables; Info & Metrics; PDF Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and Other Categories of Glucose Regulation.

Darwincub 21.12.2020 at 12:09

This is a corrected version of the article that appeared in print.

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