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# Searching And Sorting In Data Structure Using C Pdf

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In this chapter you will be dealing with the various sorting techniques and their algorithms used to manipulate data structure and its storage.

Bubble sort is a simple sorting algorithm. This sorting algorithm is comparison-based algorithm in which each pair of adjacent elements is compared and the elements are swapped if they are not in order. We take an unsorted array for our example. In this case, value 33 is greater than 14, so it is already in sorted locations.

## Sorting Algorithms

Sorting refers to arranging data in a particular format. Sorting algorithm specifies the way to arrange data in a particular order. Most common orders are in numerical or lexicographical order. The importance of sorting lies in the fact that data searching can be optimized to a very high level, if data is stored in a sorted manner.

Sorting is also used to represent data in more readable formats. Sorting algorithms may require some extra space for comparison and temporary storage of few data elements. These algorithms do not require any extra space and sorting is said to happen in-place, or for example, within the array itself.

This is called in-place sorting. Bubble sort is an example of in-place sorting. However, in some sorting algorithms, the program requires space which is more than or equal to the elements being sorted.

Sorting which uses equal or more space is called not-in-place sorting. Merge-sort is an example of not-in-place sorting. If a sorting algorithm, after sorting the contents, does not change the sequence of similar content in which they appear, it is called stable sorting.

If a sorting algorithm, after sorting the contents, changes the sequence of similar content in which they appear, it is called unstable sorting. Stability of an algorithm matters when we wish to maintain the sequence of original elements, like in a tuple for example.

A sorting algorithm is said to be adaptive, if it takes advantage of already 'sorted' elements in the list that is to be sorted. That is, while sorting if the source list has some element already sorted, adaptive algorithms will take this into account and will try not to re-order them. A non-adaptive algorithm is one which does not take into account the elements which are already sorted. They try to force every single element to be re-ordered to confirm their sortedness.

A sequence of values is said to be in increasing order , if the successive element is greater than the previous one. For example, 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9 are in increasing order, as every next element is greater than the previous element. A sequence of values is said to be in decreasing order , if the successive element is less than the current one. For example, 9, 8, 6, 4, 3, 1 are in decreasing order, as every next element is less than the previous element. A sequence of values is said to be in non-increasing order , if the successive element is less than or equal to its previous element in the sequence.

This order occurs when the sequence contains duplicate values. For example, 9, 8, 6, 3, 3, 1 are in non-increasing order, as every next element is less than or equal to in case of 3 but not greater than any previous element.

A sequence of values is said to be in non-decreasing order , if the successive element is greater than or equal to its previous element in the sequence. For example, 1, 3, 3, 6, 8, 9 are in non-decreasing order, as every next element is greater than or equal to in case of 3 but not less than the previous one. Data Structure - Sorting Techniques Advertisements. Previous Page. Next Page. Previous Page Print Page. Dashboard Logout.

## Data Structures Tutorial

Our Data Structure tutorial is designed for beginners and professionals. The data structure name indicates itself that organizing the data in memory. There are many ways of organizing the data in the memory as we have already seen one of the data structures, i. Array is a collection of memory elements in which data is stored sequentially, i. In other words, we can say that array stores the elements in a continuous manner.

A computer program is a collection of instructions to perform a specific task. For this, a computer program may need to store data, retrieve data, and perform computations on the data. A data structure is a named location that can be used to store and organize data. And, an algorithm is a collection of steps to solve a particular problem. Learning data structures and algorithms allow us to write efficient and optimized computer programs. Programiz offers a complete series of easy to follow DSA tutorials along with suitable examples.

## Searching in Data Structure

By Savi Jagga. Searching in data structure refers to the process of finding location LOC of an element in a list. This is one of the important parts of many data structures algorithms, as one operation can be performed on an element if and only if we find it. Various algorithms have been defined to find whether an element is present in the collection of items or not.

Sorting refers to arranging data in a particular format. Sorting algorithm specifies the way to arrange data in a particular order. Most common orders are in numerical or lexicographical order. The importance of sorting lies in the fact that data searching can be optimized to a very high level, if data is stored in a sorted manner. Sorting is also used to represent data in more readable formats.

#### Searching Techniques

A binary search is a simplistic algorithm intended for finding the location of an item stored in a sorted list. There are a few variations to the binary search in C program, such as testing for equality and less-than at each step of the algorithm. Binary search in C is an example of a simple process that can be used to dissolve complex problems. As such, it is an important foundational concept that you will find in almost all the good books on the C programming language. Binary search algorithm applies to a sorted array for searching an element. The search starts with comparing the target element with the middle element of the array.

C Lemma tree Which of the following is an application of stack? Practice these MCQ questions and answers for preparation of various competitive and entrance exams. Which of the following are the operations applicable an primitive data structures?

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