File Name: urbanization and rural urban migration theory and policy .zip
Urban ization and Rural - Urban Migration : Theory and. Rural - Urban migration accounts for substantial proportion.
Although poverty has decreased rapidly during the last decades, thanks to growth and specific policies, it remains a subject of concern. As such, poverty is only one aspect of an unbalanced growth process that is becoming a source of alarm, including at the topmost levels of the state.
It is well known that the floating population is currently in the order of to million individuals, despite the Hukou system that restricts migration and makes it costly. This raises several important questions. To what extent is migration a solution to poverty in rural areas? Is migration a desirable substitute for economic development in the rural sector? It has low agricultural productivity and its main activity is coal extraction. The survey methodology is sound, interviewing households that include migrants and households that do not, selected at random in four villages, and submitted comprehensive semi-directive interviews.
Of particular importance are the interviews of migrants at their place of destination. This should be contrasted with the more liberal views that have been presented later in defence of the balancing beneficial effects of migration. It seems to me that this debate is at the core of the interpretation of the Chinese situation today.
It provides many very useful figures and details on institutional arrangements, policies and reforms implemented in recent decades. Several programmes aiming at poverty alleviation have been and still are implemented, and the author argues that facilitating rural-urban migration has been considered a relatively cheap instrument for such plans.
As a matter of fact, she goes on to show that there is some trend towards facilitating migration and removing the more rigid aspects of the Hukou system. First, an anti-poverty policy would put more emphasis on formal migration qianyi than on temporary migration renkou liudong. Second, an anti-poverty policy would not regulate migration with expensive permits and documents. Obviously, migration policy is rather a mix of providing an affordable workforce to the urban development process and sheltering the native urban population from the labour market and social pressures of the migrant influx.
That this also has poverty reduction virtues is quite possible. Chapters 4 and 5 are the building blocks of the book: they first describe migrant and non-migrant households in their home areas Chapter 4 , then migrant individuals in their destination areas Chapter 5. Maybe a different organisation would have put more emphasis on the link between the two, which is the great originality and strength of the data.
Yet, the comparison of migrant and non-migrant households in Chapter 4 offers a unique description of the process of sending members outside the village. Some of the findings confirm documented features: migrants are young, male, with average education; the presence of fellow migrant villagers determines the place of migration and offers useful information channels; social ties between the migrant and his family remain strong. Mei Zhang can also quantify the remittances at about 2,, yuan per year, which is considerably higher than income from agriculture and even from non-agricultural activities nearby.
Unfortunately for rural development, it seems that remittances are not invested in agricultural or business investment. The author argues that the Shanxi economic environment may not be sufficiently favourable.
Instead, the majority of remittances are consumed in building and refurbishing houses. About half of them work in state-owned units. They generally have unskilled status miner, porter, rubbish collector, etc.
In addition, they do not benefit from the welfare contributions provided to other workers: accident and medical insurance, and accommodation and pension schemes. Still, many migrants claim that they do not want to go back to the countryside nor become farmers again: a reason for enduring such bad amenities. But there are two issues that could be considered more closely.
First, it is not clear that observed remittances do benefit the poor within rural areas, especially because, as I understand, migrants do not generally come from the poorest households. I believe that the author would have data to evaluate the amount of remittances by household initial income level. Second, following a long tradition, the author considers that migration has little cost in terms of agricultural production because there is surplus labour in this sector.
One should be careful, however, that migrants can be among the most productive workers, so that the opportunity cost of their migration can be high. Again, this could be considered more systematically.
In the end, it is arguable that income levels in rural areas increase as a result of migration, even if the impact on actual poverty levels is unclear. But this comes at a cost: living conditions of migrants in urban areas, with respect to natives. If poverty is to be a relative concept, migrants may have become, in this sense, even poorer than they used to be.
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Gary S. Becker, Todaro, Michael P, Theodore W. Schultz, Gian S.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. In the three decades since the main period of independence in Africa, population distribution and redistribution through migration have remained important and widely recognized features of the population dynamics of the continent. John O. Oucho is an associate professor of demography and director of the Population Studies and Research Institute in Nairobi, Kenya. William T. Gould is reader in geography, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Chapter 7 Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration: Theory and Policy · 1. Informal sector has higher productivity than the rural sector · 2. It has low capital-intensity.
Chukwuedozie K. Ajaero, Patience C. This paper examined the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural communities of Southeastern Nigeria. Data were obtained using mixed methods approach comprising questionnaire surveys and key informant interviews.
Migration is a driver of urbanisation IOM, , and urban migration both national and international is an increasing trend of the twenty-first century. Skeldon comments that increased migration to urban centres is inevitable given the global realities of ageing societies, slow and uneven regional and national economic growth and environmental and political instability. Meanwhile, there are an estimated See box below on Lebanese municipal responses. Both international and internal urban migration involves increasingly different types of migrants, with varying motivations.
Джабба ее не слушал, остервенело нажимая на кнопки. - Осторожно! - сказала Соши. - Нам нужны точные цифры. - Звездочка, - повторила Сьюзан, - это сноска. Соши прокрутила текст до конца раздела и побелела.
Да и весь мир криптографии изменился. Новые обязанности Сьюзан были засекречены, в том числе и для многих людей в высших эшелонах власти. - Шифры, - задумчиво сказал Беккер - Откуда ты знаешь, с чего начинать. То есть… как ты их вскрываешь.
Кабинет постепенно утопал в дыму. Стало трудно дышать.
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Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration (rough notes, use only as guidance; government policy: 'forcing' people to have illegal dwellings (hard to legalize, Towards an economic theory of rural-urban migration (the Harris-Todaro model).