File Name: mind language and society .zip
Society and culture influence the words that we speak, and the words that we speak influence society and culture. Such a cyclical relationship can be difficult to understand, but many of the examples throughout this chapter and examples from our own lives help illustrate this point. One of the best ways to learn about society, culture, and language is to seek out opportunities to go beyond our typical comfort zones.
Neurolinguistics is the study of how language is represented in the brain: that is, how and where our brains store our knowledge of the language or languages that we speak, understand, read, and write, what happens in our brains as we acquire that knowledge, and what happens as we use it in our everyday lives. Neurolinguists try to answer questions like these: What about our brains makes human language possible — why is our communication system so elaborate and so different from that of other animals? Does language use the same kind of neural computation as other cognitive systems, such as music or mathematics?
For details on it including licensing , click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author but see below , don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
Language , a system of conventional spoken, manual signed , or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves. The functions of language include communication , the expression of identity , play , imaginative expression, and emotional release. Many definitions of language have been proposed. Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to that of ideas into thoughts. A number of considerations marked in italics below enter into a proper understanding of language as a subject:.
Every physiologically and mentally typical person acquires in childhood the ability to make use, as both sender and receiver, of a system of communication that comprises a circumscribed set of symbols e.
In spoken language , this symbol set consists of noises resulting from movements of certain organs within the throat and mouth. In signed languages , these symbols may be hand or body movements, gestures, or facial expressions. By means of these symbols, people are able to impart information, to express feelings and emotions, to influence the activities of others, and to comport themselves with varying degrees of friendliness or hostility toward persons who make use of substantially the same set of symbols.
Different systems of communication constitute different languages; the degree of difference needed to establish a different language cannot be stated exactly. No two people speak exactly alike; hence, one is able to recognize the voices of friends over the telephone and to keep distinct a number of unseen speakers in a radio broadcast. Yet, clearly, no one would say that they speak different languages. Generally, systems of communication are recognized as different languages if they cannot be understood without specific learning by both parties, though the precise limits of mutual intelligibility are hard to draw and belong on a scale rather than on either side of a definite dividing line.
Substantially different systems of communication that may impede but do not prevent mutual comprehension are called dialects of a language. In order to describe in detail the actual different language patterns of individuals, the term idiolect , meaning the habits of expression of a single person, has been coined.
Typically, people acquire a single language initially—their first language, or native tongue, the language used by those with whom, or by whom, they are brought up from infancy. Complete mastery of two languages is designated as bilingualism ; in many cases—such as upbringing by parents using different languages at home or being raised within a multilingual community—children grow up as bilinguals.
Language, as described above, is species-specific to human beings. Other members of the animal kingdom have the ability to communicate, through vocal noises or by other means, but the most important single feature characterizing human language that is, every individual language , against every known mode of animal communication, is its infinite productivity and creativity.
Animal communication systems are by contrast very tightly circumscribed in what may be communicated. Indeed, displaced reference, the ability to communicate about things outside immediate temporal and spatial contiguity, which is fundamental to speech, is found elsewhere only in the so-called language of bees.
Bees are able, by carrying out various conventionalized movements referred to as bee dances in or near the hive, to indicate to others the locations and strengths of food sources. But food sources are the only known theme of this communication system. Surprisingly, however, this system, nearest to human language in function, belongs to a species remote from humanity in the animal kingdom. On the other hand, the animal performance superficially most like human speech, the mimicry of parrots and of some other birds that have been kept in the company of humans, is wholly derivative and serves no independent communicative function.
Attempts to teach sign language to chimpanzees and other apes through imitation have achieved limited success, though the interpretation of the significance of ape signing ability remains controversial. In most accounts, the primary purpose of language is to facilitate communication, in the sense of transmission of information from one person to another.
However, sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies have drawn attention to a range of other functions for language. Among these is the use of language to express a national or local identity a common source of conflict in situations of multiethnicity around the world, such as in Belgium, India, and Quebec.
Language interacts with every aspect of human life in society, and it can be understood only if it is considered in relation to society. This article attempts to survey language in this light and to consider its various functions and the purposes it can and has been made to serve. Because each language is both a working system of communication in the period and in the community wherein it is used and also the product of its history and the source of its future development, any account of language must consider it from both these points of view.
The science of language is known as linguistics. It includes what are generally distinguished as descriptive linguistics and historical linguistics. Linguistics is now a highly technical subject; it embraces, both descriptively and historically, such major divisions as phonetics , grammar including syntax and morphology , semantics , and pragmatics , dealing in detail with these various aspects of language.
Language Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login.
External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Britannica Quiz. What language is, how it works, and how it originated.
Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Load Next Page.
Croft, C. Beckner, L. Sutton, J. Wilkins, T. Bhattacharya, D.
Search this site. A brief plan to teach Arabic PDF. A New America? Adrian PDF. Alimos PDF. Am I small? Txikia naiz?
PDF | Interview with John Searle. | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate.
Download PDF. Table o f Content s:. Social Psychology and Behaviorism. The Be havioristic S ignifi cance of Attitudes. The Be havioristic S ignifi cance of Gestures.
Modern linguists primarily concern themselves with either theoretical or applied linguistics. Their research includes many facets of language and language structure, which can be studied at various levels. The discipline of linguistics focuses on theories of language structure, variation and use, the description and documentation of contemporary languages, and the implications of theories of language for an understanding of the mind and brain, human culture, social behavior, and language learning and teaching. Phonology and phonetics — the study of the sound systems of languages — deals with the basic utterances in speech.
Language , a system of conventional spoken, manual signed , or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language , either by an individual speaker or by a group of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. Always useful to traders, multilingualism is advantageous for people wanting to participate in globalization and cultural openness. People who speak several languages are also called polyglots. Multilingual speakers have acquired and maintained at least one language during childhood, the so-called first language L1. The first language sometimes also referred to as the mother tongue is usually acquired without formal education, by mechanisms about which scholars disagree.
Беккер не удостоил его ответом. - На самом деле я его не продала, - сказала Росио. - Хотела это сделать, но она совсем еще ребенок, да и денег у нее не .
С тех пор их отношения развивались с быстротой скольжения по склону горы. ГЛАВА 4 Потайная дверь издала сигнал, выведя Сьюзан из состояния печальной задумчивости. Дверь повернулась до положения полного открытия. Через пять секунд она вновь закроется, совершив вокруг своей оси поворот на триста шестьдесят градусов. Сьюзан собралась с мыслями и шагнула в дверной проем. Компьютер зафиксировал ее прибытие.
PDF | Work on the theory of language has tended to go in three directions: Ref- erentialism, representationalism and social theories of mind.
Когда я вернулся, немца уже не. - Вы не знаете, кто он. - Какой-то турист. - Вы уверены.
Рекомендации? - выпалил Джабба. - Вы ждете рекомендаций. Что ж, пожалуйста.
Экран отливал странным темно-бордовым цветом, и в самом его низу диалоговое окно отображало многочисленные попытки выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. После каждой из них следовал один и тот же ответ: ИЗВИНИТЕ. ОТКЛЮЧЕНИЕ НЕВОЗМОЖНО Сьюзан охватил озноб. Отключение невозможно.