File Name: electronic magnetic and optical materials .zip
A photonic metamaterial PM , also known as an optical metamaterial , is a type of electromagnetic metamaterial , that interacts with light, covering terahertz THz , infrared IR or visible wavelengths. The subwavelength periodicity distinguishes photonic metamaterials from photonic band gap or photonic crystal structures.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Important and unexpected discoveries have been made in all areas of condensed-matter and materials physics in the decade since the Brinkman report. Today's technological revolution would be impossible without the continuing increase in our scientific understanding of materials, phenomena, and the processing and synthesis required for high-volume, low-cost manufacturing. The technological impact of such advances is perhaps best illustrated in the areas of condensed-matter and materials physics discussed in this chapter, which will examine selected examples of electronic, magnetic, and optical materials and phenomena that are key to the convergence of computing, communication, and consumer electronics.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Important and unexpected discoveries have been made in all areas of condensed-matter and materials physics in the decade since the Brinkman report. Today's technological revolution would be impossible without the continuing increase in our scientific understanding of materials, phenomena, and the processing and synthesis required for high-volume, low-cost manufacturing.
The technological impact of such advances is perhaps best illustrated in the areas of condensed-matter and materials physics discussed in this chapter, which will examine selected examples of electronic, magnetic, and optical materials and phenomena that are key to the convergence of computing, communication, and consumer electronics.
Technology based on electronic, optical, and magnetic materials is driving the information age through revolutions in computing and communications. With the miniaturization made possible by the invention of the transistor and the integrated circuit, enormous computing and communication capabilities are becoming readily available worldwide. These technological capabilities, which enabled the information age, are fundamentally changing how we live, interact, and transact business.
Semiconductors provide an excellent demonstration of the strong. Perhaps in no other area are advances in technology more closely linked to advances in understanding. This chapter is not intended to be comprehensive; rather, it seeks to illustrate the pivotal role of condensed-matter and materials research in providing the understanding required to develop enabling technologies.
At the same time, the development of these new technologies has greatly expanded the tools and capabilities available to scientists and engineers in all areas of research and development, ranging from basic research in physics and materials to other areas of physics and to such diverse fields as medicine and biotechnology. The examples discussed also make evident the importance of long-term, sustained research in realizing the benefits to society of improved scientific understanding of materials see Figure 1.
Although technological advances today are most often associated with the information age or communications and the computing revolution, impressive advances continue to be made across a broad spectrum of technologies and scientific disciplines see Box 1.
For example, progress in condensed-matter and materials physics has led to advances in biology, medicine, and biotechnology. New tissue diagnostics based on diffusing light probes use understanding borrowed directly from the physics of carrier transport in mesoscopic random materials.
The development of new optical microscopies, such as two-photon confocal, optical coherence, and near-field optical microscopy, together with the widespread use of optical tweezers, have started a revolution in the observation and manipulation of submicrometer-sized objects in cell biology, in new forms of spectroscopic endoscopy, and in gene sequencing techniques. The emergence of high-power solid-state lasers and solid-state detectors and the widespread use of fiber optics make new optical approaches for diagnostics, dentistry, and surgery increasingly easy.
A new form of magnetic resonance imaging enabled by semiconductor laser pumping of spin-polarized xenon gas has allowed the three-dimensional mapping of lung function. The generation of femtosecond pulses of light by the use of new solid-state lasers has begun another revolution in our understanding of the subpicosecond dynamics of biological molecules on the important frontiers of molecular signal processing and protein folding.
Although not covered in detail here, such advances in the use of optics in medicine and biology are discussed in detail in another National Research Council report. New optical materials and phenomena are also responsible for a number of advances in the technologies associated with printing, copying, video and data display, and lighting.
In the realm of magnetic materials, the loss of cobalt in the s because of political unrest in Zaire prompted an intense research effort to find cobalt-free bulk magnetic materials. This led to major advances in creating magnetic structures from neodymium and iron, which had superior properties and lower cost compared with cobalt alloys for electric motors and similar applications requiring magnets with high permanent magnetization.
These new magnets, which are achieved through complex alloys and even more complex processing sequences, are vastly expanding the industrial use of bulk magnetic materials. Advances in magnetic materials and their applications are not limited to bulk materials with high permanent magnetization and magnetic materials used in information storage. Improvements in soft bulk magnetic materials play an important role in transformers used in the electric power distribution industry.
The predominant semiconductor technology today is the silicon-based integrated circuit. The silicon integrated circuit is the engine that drives the information revolution. For the past 30 years, this technology has been dominated by Moore's Law: that the density of transistors on a silicon integrated circuit doubles about every 18 months.
Today's computing and communications capability would not be possible without the phenomenal 25 to 30 percent per year exponential growth in capability per unit cost since the introduction of the integrated circuit in about That sustained rate of progress has resulted in high-density memories with 64 million bits on a chip and complex, high-performance logic chips with more than 9 million transistors on a chip.
This trend is projected to continue for the next several years see Figures 1. If the silicon integrated circuit is the engine that powers the computing and communications revolution, optical fibers are the highways for the information age.
Although fiber optics is a relatively recent entrant into the high-technology arena, its impact is enormous and growing. Fiber is now the preferred technology for transmission of information over long distances. There are already approximately 30 million km of fiber installed in the United States and an estimated million km worldwide.
In part because of the faster than exponential growth of connections to the Internet, optical fiber is being installed worldwide at an accelerated rate of. In addition, the rate of information transmission down a single fiber is increasing exponentially by a factor of every decade. Transmission at 2. The analog of Moore's Law for fiber transmission capacity, which serves as a technology roadmap for lightwave systems, is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Compound semiconductor diode lasers provide the laser photons that transport information along the optical information highways. Semiconductor diode lasers are also at the heart of optical storage and compact disc technology. In addition to their use in very high-performance microelectronics applications, compound semiconductors have proven to be an extremely fertile field for advancing our understanding of fundamental physical phenomena.
Exploiting decades of basic research, we are now beginning to be able to understand and control all aspects of compound semiconductor structures, from mechanical through electronic to optical, and to grow devices and structures with atomic layer control, in a few specific materials systems. This capability allows the manufacture of high-performance, high-reliability, compound semiconductor diode lasers that can be modulated at gigahertz frequencies to send information over the fiber-optic networks.
High-speed semiconductor-based detectors receive and decode this information. These same materials provide the billions of light-emitting diodes sold annually for displays, free-space or short-range high-speed communication, and numerous other applications.
In addition, very high-speed, low-power compound semiconductor electronics play a major role in wireless communication, especially for portable units and satellite systems. Another key enabler of the information revolution is low-cost, low-power, high-density information storage that keeps pace with the exponential growth of corn-. Courtesy of Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies. Both magnetic and optical storage are in wide use. Although Lord Kelvin discovered magnetoresistance in , it was not until the early s that commercial products using this technology were introduced see Figure 1.
In the past decade, our understanding of condensed matter and materials converged with advances in our ability to deposit materials with atomic-level control to produce the GMR heads that were introduced in workstations in late It is hoped that with additional research and development, spin valve and colossal magnetoresistance CMR technology may be understood and applied to workstations of the future.
This increased understanding, provided in part. Courtesy of IBM Research. Magnetoelectronics, an emerging area based on advances in the understanding of the properties and processing of magnetic materials, shows promise for future applications. Despite the numerous recent discoveries and technological advances in the understanding and use of magnetic materials, our fundamental understanding of magnetism remains remarkably incomplete.
Some of the basic questions and important challenges in magnetism facing the scientific community are discussed in this chapter. As noted in the introduction, semiconductor technology is the key enabler of the information age. The science of materials as a specific discipline is a relatively. The physics and materials science of semiconductors is an even more recent development.
Metals and ceramics were commercially important materials when the transistor was demonstrated about 50 years ago. Despite the fact that the science of semiconductors is relatively new compared to that of metals and ceramics, the commercial importance of semiconductors is now comparable to that of metals and ceramics.
Advances in semiconductor technology are driving the rapid growth of business sectors involved with computing, communications, consumer electronics, and software, and are enabling emerging fields such as biotechnology. Today's transistor performance and the incredible advances of integrated circuits in silicon technology are the result of more than 50 years of dedicated research in electronic materials.
The understanding achieved from this focused research has enabled high-volume manufacturing of circuits with ever-increasing complexity and performance. In addition to driving computing and communications, the steady decrease in cost-per-function has created literally hundreds of applications for silicon integrated circuits. Semiconductors are ubiquitous. The increasing functionality of integrated circuits, which comes as a by-product of scaling to smaller feature sizes, has been achieved by comparable increases in their complexity and that of the attendant manufacturing process.
Today's leading-edge microprocessors are manufactured with minimum feature sizes of nm and require six levels of metallization to connect the transistors and circuit components. A beneficial by-product of the steady decrease in feature size is higher speed devices and circuits. Based on technology projections that form the basis of the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors , 3 the semiconductor industry expects to manufacture integrated circuits with feature sizes of nm in and nm by If the scaling trend continues as indicated by Moore's Law, which the industry has followed since its inception, integrated circuits with minimum feature sizes of 50 nm will be manufactured in high volumes within 15 years see Box 1.
Continuing to advance this technology requires that the industry invest in expensive new manufacturing facilities and an ever-increasing scientific understanding and control of semiconductor. In the early s, the basic machines that were later adapted for ion implantation in the semiconductor business were used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for uranium isotope separation.
This was a critical part of the Manhattan Project. Ion beams were first used as part of semiconductor-device processing at Bell Laboratories in Bell filed a comprehensive patent in covering the use of ion implantation for doping semiconductors, but it was not until that implantation was actually used to manufacture commercial semiconductor devices.
Hughes Research Laboratory used the technique to form junctions in the manufacturing of diodes. In Texas Instruments began using ion implantation in integrated circuit manufacturing to set threshold voltages. Concurrent with these developments in processing, several companies attempted to enter the implant-tool manufacturing business with only moderate success, most successful among them being Accelerators Incorporated. In , however, a new company, Extrion, was formed to build commercial implanters specifically designed for integrated circuit manufacturing.
Extrion soon became the primary supplier of implant tools. This led to the development of a whole new industry in America. Today, ion implantation is used in several steps of the integrated circuit manufacturing process to control the concentration and depth distribution of dopants. Ion implantation tool manufacturing, an almost exclusively U. Three U. Conversely, our rate of understanding has been greatly enhanced by the technology created by the rapid advances in semiconductor-related technologies.
Many daunting scientific and engineering problems must be overcome in order to continue at the Moore's Law rate of progress for the next 15 or even 10 years. For instance, the number of wires needed to connect the transistors grows as a power of the number transistors. As transistor dimensions are shrunk, computer chip manufacturers pack an ever-increasing number of them into their devices. The complexity of wiring the transistors in these devices may eventually reach the limits of known materials.
Moreover, the cost of manufacturing increasingly layered and complex wiring structures may limit the performance of these systems. Even if solutions to the interconnect problem can be identified, continued scaling of silicon technology will ultimately encounter fundamental limits. For example, metal-oxide semiconductor transistors can be built today with gate lengths of 30 nm only about atoms long that display high-quality device characteristics. Manufacturing complex circuits that rely on devices with these feature sizes will require several hundred processing steps with atomic-level control.
The Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials has been prepared to give a broad coverage of a wide range of electronic and photonic materials, starting from fundamentals and building up to advanced topics and applications. Its wide coverage with clear illustrations and applications, its chapter sequencing and logical flow, make it very different than other electronic materials handbooks. Each chapter has been prepared either by experts in the field or instructors who have been teaching the subject at a university or in corporate laboratories. The handbook provides an accessible treatment of the material by developing the subject matter in easy steps and in a logical flow. Wherever possible, the sections have been logically sequenced to allow a partial coverage at the beginning of the chapter for those who only need a quick overview of the subject. Additional valuable features include the practical applications used as examples, details on experimental techniques, useful tables that summarize equations, and, most importantly, properties of various materials.
Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics. Magneto-optical materials have two unique properties, which make them important for a variety of optical applications. The first property is non-reciprocity. The time inverse symmetry is broken in magneto-optical materials. Therefore, properties of magneto-optical materials are different for two opposite directions of light propagation and optical non-reciprocal devices like the optical isolator and the optical circulator can be fabricated only by utilizing magneto-optical materials. The second important property of the magneto-optical materials is a memory function. If the material is ferromagnetic, the data can be memorized by means of two opposite directions of the residual magnetization.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Jin and Minghu Pan and X. He and G.
This book integrates materials science with other engineering subjects such as physics, chemistry and electrical engineering. The authors discuss devices and.
Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. Optical Materials has an open access mirror journal Optical Materials: X which has the same aims and scope, editorial board and peer-review process. The purpose of Optical Materials is to provide a means of communication and technology transfer between researchers who are interested in materials for potential device applications.
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We use these principles to describe the origins of the electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of materials, and we discuss how these properties can be engineered to suit particular applications, including diodes, optical fibers, LEDs, and solar cells.